ПОПОВО ПОЉЕ

POPOVO POLJE

The Devon Karst Research Society, Plymouth, England,
in partnership with
Speleološko Društvo "Zelena Brda" - Спелеолошко Друштво "Зелена Брда", Trebinje, RS-Bosna i Hercegovina.
The Karstography of the DINARIC KARST IN BOSNIA AND HERCEGOVINA
Part 3.  Eastern Hercegovina.
POPOVO POLJE - ПОПОВО ПОЉЕ
F-BiH Neum Canton - Ravno Municipality.
RS-BiH Trebinje Region - Trebinje Municipality.
.
Updated 27 April 2016.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS :  Most of the information on this Webpage is derived from 4 sources :
We acknowledge the interest and support of our partner organization in RS-Bosna i Hercegovina, the Speleological Society "Zelena Brda" who have
provided some of the information and many photographs and assisted in research. We also acknowledge the publication "Mlinice na Ponorima Rijeka
Trebišnjice u Popovom Polju", published in 1980 by the Regionalni Zavod za Zaštitu Spomenika Kulture i Prirode, Mostar, from which some information
has been extracted for us.
We also acknowledge the work published by Borislav Petrović and Slobodan Kovačina in their article "Mlinice u Koritu Trebišnjice duž Popova Polja" in
1984., from which we have used their excellent technical diagrams of the ponor mill construction. Finally, our own extensive photographic field work and
research has added to this cocktail of information about a unique cultural, historical and scientific aspect of human interaction with the amazing Popovo
Karst Polje. 
The Society has produced a film of the last
active ponor mill in Popovo Polje, at Pridvorci,
in full operation. before its recent demise in 2013.

Copies on DVD format are available in the UK.
The price is £10.50p. incl. postage, direct from the Society.

Section 7.0.   PONOR MILLS - ПОНОР МЛИНОВИ - PONOR MLINICE.
(Details of surviving, non-operational Ponor Mills along the riverbanks of the Trebišnjica, Popovo Polje.)

7.1.  GENERAL INTRODUCTION :
Popovo Polje contains the remnants or ruins of a great many ponor mills. This Section of the Popovo Polje Webpages deals with this interesting aspect of karst water utilization and karst hydro-engineering. It should be noted that the Dobromani Ponor Mills and those at Pridvorci are dealt with in greater pictorial detail in their own Sections located elsewhere on this Website.

Many of the karst ponor-mills along the Trebišnjica River in Popovo Polje were constructed prior to the period of the Austro-Hungarian Administration. Mikuleć & Trumić (1976) seem to indicate that they have survived from the earlier period of Turkish Rule. In a personal communication, Milanović seems to agree with this. According to Petrović & Kovacina (1984), their personal investigations, which have included the detailed interrogation of owners of some ponor-mills, have indicated that some mills were purchased directly from Turkish Noblemen, who sold them for gold. The then owner of the Dučića Ponor-mill near the village of Lug said that his ponor-mill was the oldest and had been purchased for gold from Turkish Noblemen by his Slavic family ancestors in the year 1819.
It is well documented that during their occupation of Bosnia and Hercegovina, the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy employed the services of several karst engineers to devise and implement hydromelioration projects on the karst. Although much of this work had military overtones, it should be remembered that much was also achieved to ease the extreme karst-environmental conditions that prevailed upon the indigenous population. Due to their efforts, agricultural activities in particular became more sustainable. 
However, in respect of similar activities during Turkish Rule, we currently have nothing other than scant information.
Karst Ponor-mills were also built in Livanjsko Polje and in Lipovo Polje in Lica.

From a purely speleological viewpoint, the very presence of a ponor mill indicates not only the self-evident presence of a ponor (or sometimes an estavelle) but also the possibility that the ponor may offer a point of physical access to a ponor cave. This is not always the case. For example, a whole series of ponor mills may have been constructed by various villages along the Trebišnjica River in a ponor zone, where some of the ponors in their natural condition may only ever have been inaccessible fissures feeding water into parts of the same karst conduit which does contain accessible input channels elsewhere within the ponor zone. However, for the efficient performance of the ponor mill, there obviously has to be a minimum water-absorption capacity.
The ponor mills of Popovo Polje are usually located near or adjacent to the principal waterway of the Trebišnjica Karst River, formerly in its natural condition, the largest disappearing karst river (locally = ponornica) in Europe. Bearing in mind that the permanent course of this river in the dry summer months stopped at the enormous ponor at Dražin Do, most of the Ponor Mills further downstream could only have been utilized for the production of flour during the wet Winter or Spring months.
More than 20 ponor-mills were still operational after World War 2. but their demise has been due to both the construction of modern bulk-processing flour mills but even more so to the total destruction of the whole way of historical life in Popovo Polje, caused by the development of the region-wide project "Hidroelektrane na Trebišnjici" since the mid 1960's.
It should be noted that the Hidroelektrane na Trebišnjici Co. had a contractual obligation to preserve 5 ponor mills. They have done nothing to honour this obligation, as we would expect.

7.2.  STATISTICS ABOUT THE POPOVO POLJE PONOR MILLS :
Before 1992, there was the "Regionalni Zavod za Zaštitu Spomenika Kulture i Prirode, Mostar", in Western Herzegovina,
where a record of all ponor mills was kept. We do not know the fate of this organization or that of its archive records.
Attempts were made in August 2009 to locate both! An institution by the same name now exists in Trebinje as an outpost of
the main Republika Srpska Government organization in Banja Luka. We are now collaborating with this organization.
From our own work, we have gathered the following statistics presented below on this page.
These data will inevitably change as further information is discovered.
Please also note that we are still adding data to this webpage as we sift through our own Archives to find out who has
incidentally or purposefully recorded what and where and as we discover more information during fieldwork operations.

The Society is now better able to locate the locations of ponor mills due to our acquisition of 1 : 25 000 Scale and 1 : 2 500 Scale Topographic Maps and an increasing coverage of the area with high-resolution Aerial Photogrammetry images.
The 1 : 2 500 Scale Maps may be regarded as historical documents, insofar as they were published in the 1950's during the period of F.S.R. Jugoslavija, (N.R. / S.R. Bosna i Hercegovina), using data from the original Austro-Hungarian Maps.

Theoretically, there are supposed to be 65 ponor mills in Popovo Polje...Milanović,.in a personal communication,
states that along Popovo Polje, more than 20 ponor-mills were operational after World War 2.  Petrović.& Kovačina have
counted at least 50. We have so far accounted for 50 mills. 
The demise of the mills was due both to the construction of modern bulk-processing flour mills and to the "Hidroelektrane na Trebišnjici" project.

Statistics.:...Currently entered in this on-line register are :-
1....Number of ponor mills accounted for herein  = 50.
....(of which 31 have known names and 19 have no known names.)
...... and of which .....
2a. Number of ponor mills identified as being situated on the left bank of the Trebišnjica River = 28.
2b. Number of ponor mills identified as being situated on the right bank of the Trebišnjica River = 11.
2c. Number of ponor mills whose exact location is presently unknown = 11.
3....Number of ponor mills about which we have no specific Data = 10.
4a. Number of ponor mills known to have been designed with 1 x Turbine / Millstone set = 11.
4b. Number of ponor mills known to have been designed with 2 x Turbine / Millstone sets = 2.
5....Number of ponor mills with known accessible caves or shafts = 7.
6....Number which are reversible-flow dual-use Estavelle Mills = 2. 

It should be noted that reversible-flow Estavelle Mills had dual functionality. These units when in a "ponor" mode were used as
flour mills. However, when in their "vrelo" or "spring" mode, they were also utilized as sources of fish - for the gaovica salmonoid fish. It seems that there were many more of these "fishing units" than have been commonly reported on. 
Further details will be posted here in due course.

.
VOCABULARY OF TERMINOLOGY USED IN THIS WEBPAGE.

1. Generalni../.General, (locational / descriptive).
.
DESNA OBALA = Right riverbank;
DOBRO OČUVAN = Well preserved;
LIJEVA OBALA = Left riverbank;
OBIM = Extent; Circumference; Size;
OŠTEĆEN = Damaged;
SAČUVAN = Preserved;
SEOSKI MLIN = Village Mill;
STANJE = Condition;
U LOŠEM STANJU = In Bad Condition;
UNIŠTEN = Ruined;
ZAPUŠTEN = Neglected.

Note :
Where descriptions about the condition of the structure have been taken
from other texts and has not been verified as being the present condition, 
an asterisk * will suffix the adjective.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

2. Tehnički../.Technical.
.
BENT; BENAT ili BEDEM  = Cofferdam;
Usually constructed to be waterproof to protect the mill from being flooded
by the nearby river.
DONjI MLIN = Lower Mill;
FOŠTANAC =
GORNjI MLIN = Upper Mill;
KOBILA = Base Anchor Frame (=Keel);
KOLO = Turbine Wheel;
LOPATICA = Scoop;
MLAZNICA = Spout of Water-input Channel;
MLIN; MLINICA  = Mill (singular).
MLINOVI; MLINICE  = Mills (plural);
MLINSKI KAMEN = Mill-stone
MLINSKO KOLO = Mill-wheel
MLINSKI NASIP = Mill Dam;
OSIGURAVAJUĆI OBRUČI = Securing Hoop;
PAPRICA =
PERAJE (LOPATICE) = Blade (Scoop);
PLOČA = Disc / Plate;
POSTAVAK = Bearing;
PREĆNIKA =..Ø..= Diameter;
RASKLAD =
RGA =
SENJ = Drive-Spindle / Drive Shaft;
STUPA = Pillar / Post;
TULAC = Cylinder;
TRUPINA = Hull;
TURBINA =  Turbine;
VRATILO = Drive-Beam;

7.3.  PONOR..MILL..DEFINITION,..DESIGN,
.
A karst ponor-mill may best be described as a structure built on, over or around the mouth of a karst ponor (= karst sink or swallow hole), with the intention of harnessing the hydropower of the surface-water which is naturally discharging from a surface stream or river into the ponor and caves beneath. To be effective, the ponor would need to have a good absorption capacity to permit the mill to function as an on-going event. An acceptable minimum capacity is 1m³ sec­¹.

The construction of ponor-mills in the entrance channels of ponors was certainly an innovative use of the potential energy arising from water naturally discharging into the endokarst. This ingenious use of hydro-energy was employed to drive the flour mills which processed the grain cultivated in Popovo Polje. In the case of Popovo Polje, the harvest would have been mainly of the special "100-day" crop which, as its name suggests, would have been planted, grown and harvested with the 100-day cultivation period in the central and lower parts of the polje. For the remaining period of the year, the polje-floor was inundated.
Many ponor-mills were constructed with associated infrastructure such as river dams and ancilliary out-buildings.
Below is an illustration of the three principal dispositions of ponor mouths in respect of their adjacency to the riverbed and riverbank of the Trebišnjica River in Popovo Polje.

The water discharging into the base of the mill structure would drive a turbine, originally of wooden construction but latterly of metal, and this in turn would be directly connected via a drive-shaft to a set of mill-stones on a higher level above. The quantity of flow being delivered to the wooden turbine was regulated by the opening or closing of a sluice-gate or "water gate" on the outside of the cylindrical outer wall. The control for this gate was situated at the top of the cylindrical outer wall directly above the gate. This water-control device is known as a penstock.
The cylindrical or neo-cylindrical outer stone wall is of waterproof construction, enveloping the mill infrastructure. When the mill is in operation, this wall may be partly submerged, acting as a coffer-dam.

Further below is an illustration indicating how a ponor mill was positioned into the ponor-mouth.


Slika PPPM1..Lokacija ponora duž korita rijeka-..a. na desnoj, odnosno njevoj obali;..b. u dnu korita;..c. u zaobalju.
Illustration PPPM1..Location of ponors along the riverbed-..a. situated in the right riverbank;..b. on the riverbed;..c. above the riverbank.


Slika PPPM2..Opšta dispozicija objekata mlinice-. .1. Ulaz u ponor;..2. Ponor;..3. Objekat mlinice...4. Pomoćni objekat.
Illustration PPPM2...Usual disposition of the Ponor Mill Object...1..Entrance to ponor;..2. Ponor;..3. Ponor Mill buildings...4. Auxilliary buildings.
.

GENERAL CONSTRUCTION..and..OPERATIONAL LAYOUT.
.
The construction drawing below indicates the layout and disposition of the various basic component design details which are common to all ponor mills

.
.
Slika PPPM3..Elementi glavnog objekta mlinice :-
1...Bedem građevina;
2...Zahvatna građevina;
3...Najniža etaža sa obrtnim kolom;
4...Gornja etaža sa mlinskim kamenovima;
5...Pristupno stepenište;
6...Krov mlinske etaže.

Illustration PPPM3..Main Elements of the Mill Building :-
1...Cofferdam structure.
2...Input-water structure.
3...Lowest level with Turbine wheel;
4...Upper level with Mill-stones;
5...Entrance steps.
6...Roof level of mill. 
.
.
.
The construction drawing below indicates the specific geometric relationship between the input-water channel and the Turbine Wheel, in order to maximize the power-potential of the incoming water. The Turbine Wheels were originally mostly constructed of wood, with the scoop-shaped Turbine Blades actually having been carved out of solid wood.
The Illustration gives geometric details from both the Plan View aspect (a.) and the Vertical Cross-sectional aspect (b.).


Slika PPPM4...Djelovanje mlaza na obrtno kolo u horizontalnoj (a)..i u vertikalnoj (b)..ravni-
K..Kolo;..L..Lopatice;..M..Mlaznica;..Fh..Horizontalna komponenta;..Fv..Vertikalna komponenta.
Illustration PPPM4...Details of the critical positioning of the water-input channel to turn the mill-wheel in Plan View (a) and in the vertical (b).
K..Turbine wheel;..L..Water Scoops;..M..Spout of Water-input Channel;..Fh..Horizontal component;..Fv..Vertical component.

GRAIN-FEED MECHANISM

The mechanism by which grain is fed into the millstones is of wooden construction and sits above and astride the millstones and is supported by two wooden beams.
The illustrations below are taken from the working example in the Bračkovića mlinica at Pridvorci.
In the top image, the sack of grain sits on top of the wooden "cradle" feeding grain into it. This then comes out at the bottom in a controlled fashion and feeds into a metal funnel located in the central hole on the top millstone, as seen in the lower image. 

PONOR MILL DESIGN COMPONENTS

Slika PPPM5...2. Lopatica; 7. Osiguravajući obruči; 9. Senj; 14..Gornji mlinski kamen;.15..Donji mlinski kamen;
Illustration PPPM5...2..Water scoop; 7. Metal Securing Hoop; 9..Drive Shaft; 14..Upper Mill-stone;.15..Lower Mill-stone;

It was the usual tradition to give each water-wheel (Turbine) in each mill its own name.

TURBINE DESIGN AND GEOMETRY


Illustration PPPM6...Plan-view of the Construction Details of the Turbine Wheel Components


Photo PPPM7.. Illustrating some of the components shown in the above illustrations
as seen in the Sedlarska mlinica - lower level Double Turbine Chamber. 

MILLING THE GRAIN TO PRODUCE FLOUR
for PAYMENT "IN KIND"

The Bračkovića mlinica, at Pridvorci continues to adopt the traditional system of allowing villagers to have their grain milled in return for a payment "in kind" of 10% by weight of the flour produced.
The image below indicates the flour issuing from the millstones into an adjacent flour-pit.


 

THE MILLSTONES

Of the two millstones above the Turbine Chamber, it is only the top one which is connected to the drive shaft rising up from the Turbine. We have not completed our survey to determine the dimensions of millstones.
The millstone is usually metal-strapped around the whole of the outside-edge circumference, to prevent it from breaking apart and destroying the whole mechanism if it should break during use.
 
 

Additional simple but separate mechanisms permit a manually operated brake to be applied by the miller, whilst another permits the fine adjustment of the space between the millstones to be undertaken at will. In the latter case, this permits the production of different grades of fineness of the flour being produced, a practical choice which may be necessary to reflect the end-use of the flour.

[Text & Images to follow]

INPUT WATER CONTROL MECHANISMS

[Text and Images to follow]

ПОПОВО ПОЉЕ
POPOVO POLJE
7.4...THE PONOR MILLS  /  ПОНОР МЛИНИЦЕ  /  PONOR MLINICE
With details of the name, position, condition, ownership details (if known) and description of the ponor mills of which we are aware.
The Mills are given in alphabetical order of the names of their geographically associated villages.
7.4...THE PONOR MILLS  /  ПОНОР МЛИНИЦЕ  /  PONOR MLINICE
Illustrating the ponor mills, if images currently exist in our Archive.
. Selo BIJELAČ, 1 ponor mill :
-.Bijelački mlin,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica.
Vlasništvo / Ownership :
Opis / Description :..Obim = 33.70m.
Stanje / Condition :
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
________________________________ 
                                                                                                                    (Images right), 
Bjelački mlin,
(Photos :  B. Lewarne, August 2015.)
. Selo BUĐANI, 1 ponor mill :
-.Buđana mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica.
Vlasništvo / Ownership :
Opis / Description :
Stanje / Condition :..
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
[awaiting images]

Old archive photo of the Drapića mlin at Dobromani, complete with operational Dam ( here shown submerged beneath
the Trebišnjica River) and ancilliary buildings.
Selo DOBROMANI, 3 ponor mills :
-.Dobromani-Istok mlinica, (type-3 water input) (no name found as yet);
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..42º 47' 13" N. : 018º 09' 32" E. @ 259m.asl. /..lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
.................................Situated 840 m. eastwards (upstream) from the small bridge that takes a minor cross-polje road across the Trebišnjica River and the .................................polje floor to Jasenica Lug.
Vlasništvo / Ownership :
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
Opis / Description :..1 x Cofferdam in reasonable though neglected condition  - Ø = 24m. 
Stanje / Condition :..zapušten / neglected; this mill is in poor condition. Internally and externally, it is very overgrown with thick vegetation.
[no further details]

-.Perišića mlinica, (type-3 water input)
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..42º 47' 29" N. : 018º 09' 08" E. @ 257m.asl. /..desna obala R. Trebišnjica;
..................................Situated only 33.5m. from the nearby Trebinje-Ljubinje Road. Exactly 36.5m. upstream (eastwards) from the Ponor-mill is a road ..................................junction where a small bridge takes a minor cross-polje road across the Trebišnjica River and the polje floor to Jasenica Lug.
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..Formerly in the ownership of the late Mr Luka Perišić and now his sister Mila Bilbija in Sarajevo and his son.
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
Opis / Description :..1 x Bedem / Cofferdam - Ø = 20.2m.; 1 x Turbine; 1 x Millstone set, Ø = 120cm.; 
...............................Associated separate buildings, now having been reconstructed and being re-used as private houses.
Stanje / Condition :..zapušten / neglected; this mill is in excellent structural condition and could be made to work again. It is very overgrown with thick .................................vegetation.

-.Drapića mlinica, (type-3 water input)
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..42º 47' 31" N. : 018º 08' 53" E. @ 262m.asl. /..lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
383m. downstream (westward) from the small bridge that takes a minor cross-polje road across the Trebišnjica River and the polje floor to Jasenica Lug.
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..Mr Đoko Drapić [bh], whose family still lives in Gornje Dobromani, although Đoko Drapić now resides in Makarska, Croatia.
Date of Construction :..1902.
Opis / Description :..1 x Bedem (excellent structural condition)  - Ø = 19.8m.; 1 x Turbine; 0 x Millstone set; internal Mill-House roof is totally ruined but ................................restorable; 2 x associated external ancilliary buildings, one of which provided living and sleeping quarters. The Mill Dam across the ...............................Trebišnjica was destroyed by the HET Co. when the riverbed was shotcreted.
Stanje / Condition :..zapušten / neglected; this mill is in good structural condition and could be made to work again.

Please follow this Link to the sub-Project webpages about the Dobromani Ponor Mills.


Left to right :..Dobromani mlinovi :..Istok mlinica; Peršića mlinica and Drapića mlinica (bottom view)............................................................
(Photos :..Top Left & Right only - B. Lewarne.).................................................................................................................................................
. Selo DRAŽIN DO, 1 ponor mill :
-.Dražin doški mlin,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
.................................Situated below the now derelict old Austro-Hungarian school.
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..[not yet known];
Opis / Description :..1 x Cofferdam; 1 x Turbine; (turbina oštećena, ali nije uništena / turbine damaged but not ruined);
Stanje / Condition :..zapušten; was working until the mid-1970's.
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
_________________________________
Images (in right-side column - left to right),
Interior view of Mill House roof; View of the Mill-stone area in the Milling Room;
The Turbine & Turbine Chamber.
(Photos :  SD "Zelena Brda".)
. Selo GOMILjANI, 2 ponor mills :
-.Kočo i Viđeni mlinica sa dolapom, (type-3 with water-bucket elevator input);
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..42º 42' 12" N. : 018º 18' 44" E. @ 265m.asl. - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..The Kuče and Viđeni [bm] families in Gomiljani;
Opis / Description :..1 x Cofferdam; 1 x Turbine Wheel / kolo Ø = 508cm.
Stanje / Condition :..zapušten / neglected and being used as a rubbish dump, so interior is not accessible; good exterior structural condition.
Additional Info :  An Austro-Hungarian Land-survey steel survey point is embedded in the bedrock just downstream of this mill.

-.Gomiljani mlin, (type-3 water input)
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..
Opis / Description :..1 x bedem in good condition; 
Stanje / Condition :..uništen; Ponor remains active.
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].

_________________________________
Images (in right-side column),
These images show the totally overgrown condition of the Kočo i Viđeni mlinica structure.
(Photos :  left - B. Lewarne; right - Hungarian Team.)
Selo GRMLjANI, 1 ponor mill :
-.Mićevića mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] @ 242.16m.asl. - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica.
..........[1 : 2 500 Map POLJICE 61. 6G8-A4 (K.o. Grmljani 1.) 61-6-1.]
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..Mićević.
Opis / Description:..[not known]
Stanje / Condition :..Obim: [not known]
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
_________________________________
Image (in right-side column),
(Photos :  right - .)
Map (in left-side column), Mićevića mlinica.
Extract from 1 : 2 500 Map POLJICE 61. 6G8-A4 (K.o. Grmljani 1.) 61-6-1.
[awaiting images]
. Selo KOČELA, 2 ponor mills :
-.Kočela Donja mlinica.,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - desna obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..Seoski mlin / Village Mill;
Opis / Description :..1 x Bedem -  Ø = 31.30m.
Stanje / Condition :..uništen
-.Kočela Gornja mlinica.,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - desna obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :
Opis / Description :
Stanje / Condition :..uništen
[no further details]
.[awaiting images]
. Selo LOKVICE, 1 ponor mill :
-.[Name], not known.
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..[not yet known];
Opis / Description :..
Stanje / Condition :..u lošem stanju. / in bad condition;
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
.[awaiting images]
Selo LUG, 1 ponor mill :
-.Dučića mlinica, the oldest of all the ponor mills in Popovo Polje, dating from the period of the Ottoman Empire Occupation.
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - desna obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..[Historically, the "Dučić" Trebinje merchant  family.]
Opis / Description :..1 x Bedem -  Ø = 20m. (unutrašnji / internal);
Stanje / Condition :..u lošem stanju. / in bad condition;
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
[awaiting images]
Selo MASLEŠA, 2 ponor mills :
-.Masleša I. mlinica.
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica.
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :  This is the upstream of the 2 ponor mills..Obim / Size = 33.70m.
Stanje / Condition :.
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
-.Masleša II. mlinica.
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica.
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :  This is the downstream of the 2 ponor mills.
Stanje / Condition :..
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
[awaiting images]
Selo MIONIĆI, 3 ponor mills :
-.Stupa.[Name 1.], not known.
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica.
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.Seoski mlin;
Opis / Description :..1 x Bedem -  Ø = 26.45m.
Stanje / Condition :..uništen;.
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
-.Mlin + Stupa. [Name 2.], not known.
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica.
Opis / Description :.1 x Bedem -  Ø = 34.35m.
Stanje / Condition :..Sačuvan / Preserved;
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
-.[Name 3.],not known.
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica.
Opis / Description :
Stanje / Condition :...uništen;
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
[awaiting images]
Selo MOSTAĆI, 1 estavelle mill :
-.Ružića mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..42° 42' 45'' N : 018° 18' 18'' E. @ 266m.asl. - desna obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..Ružić family [bs].
Opis / Description :..A double Turbine with a double Millstone Flour Mill with reversible-turn-direction capability.
...............................The Mill operated up until the 2nd World War and then again after this until 1967., when it then became redundant
...............................because of the activities of the HET Co., who hold the photo-documents taken at this time.
...............................The Mill was then dismantled and taken apart by the owners. The machinery survives intact.
...............................This Mill building was not a standard design of construction. According to the owners, who were questioned in August 2000., the
...............................old parts of the mill machinery were made in Vienna. The Mill had two vertical shutters for water control during the "ponor mode"
...............................of operation. It also had a main exterior Dam of 120cm. in height and a smaller Dam in the entrance area.
Stanje / Condition :..uništen;
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
_________________________________
Image (in right-side column),
The remaining part of the Estavelle Mill structure as seen in dry conditions in March 2002.
(Photo :  B. Lewarne, 06 March 2002.)
Image (in left-side column),
The remaining part of the Estavelle Mill structure as seen in flood conditions in February 2003.
(Photo :  Dubravko Kurtović, 10 February 2003.)
Selo MRKONjIĆI, 1 ponor mill :
-.Mrkonjski mlin,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - desna obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :..1 x Bedem -  Ø = 14m.
Stanje / Condition :.
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
_________________________________
Image (in right-side column),
(Photos :  )
Map (in left-side column), Mrkonjski mlin.
Extract from 1 : 2 500 Map POLJICE 61. 6G8-A4 (K.o. Grmljani 1.) 61-6-1.
[awaiting images]
Selo ORAŠJE, 2 ponor mills :
-.[Name 1.], not known.
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - desna obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :
Stanje / Condition :..
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
-.[Name 2.], not known.
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..seoski mlin;
Opis / Description :
Stanje / Condition :..
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
[awaiting images]

MAP PP1.

MAP PP2.

MAP PP3.

MAP PP4.
Selo POPOVO POLjICA, 8 ponor mills :

-.Gornji mlin,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known]  - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :..
Stanje / Condition :...
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].

_________________________________
Map PP1. (in left-side column), Gornji mlinica.
Extract from 1 : 2 500 Map POLJICE 61. 6G8-D2 (K.o. Tulje 6.) 84-4-1.
-.Kriva rijeka mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known]  - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :..Originally with a downstream river dam.
Stanje / Condition :...
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
_________________________________
Map PP3. (in left-side column), Kriva rijeka mlinica.
Extract from 1 : 2 500 Map POLJICE 61. 6G8-D2 (K.o. Tulje 6.) 84-4-1.


-.Kusalovića mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known]  - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :..Originally with a downstream river dam; 1 x Cofferdam; 1 x Turbine Wheel.
Stanje / Condition :..zapušten;
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].

_________________________________
Images (in right-side column), Kusalovića mlinica.
(Photos PP-KM1.; PP-KM2 and PP-KM3..Bogdan Prelević, 28 September 2001.)
Map PP4. (in left-side column), Kusalovića mlinica.
Extract from 1 : 2 500 Map POLJICE 61. 6G8-D2 (K.o. Popovo Poljica 2.) 84-5-1.


-.Ljepavni mlinovi, ("mlinovi" implies the presence of at least 2 mills),
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known]  - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :..
Stanje / Condition :...
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].

_________________________________
Map PP1. (in left-side column), Ljepovini mlinica.
Extract from 1 : 2 500 Map POLJICE 61. 6G8-D2 (K.o. Tulje 6.) 84-4-1.


-.Praskan mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known]  - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :..1 x Bedem -  Ø = 30.45m.
Stanje / Condition :..
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].

_________________________________


-.Slućemnik mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known]  - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :
Stanje / Condition :..
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].

_________________________________
Map PP2. (in left-side column), Slućemnik mlinica.
Extract from 1 : 2 500 Map POLJICE 61. 6G8-A4 (K.o. Grmljani 1.) 61-6-1.


-.Srednja mlinica (lokalni = "Bunar mlinica"),
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known]  - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..seoski mlin;
Opis / Description :
Stanje / Condition :..
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].

_________________________________


-.Vrbanj mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known]  - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..seoski mlin;
Opis / Description :..1 x Bedem -  Ø = 25.74m.
Stanje / Condition :..
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].

_________________________________
Map PP1. (in left-side column), Vrbanj mlinica.
Extract from 1 : 2 500 Map POLJICE 61. 6G8-A4 (K.o. Grmljani 1.) 61-6-1.

Image.PP-KM1. (above-left) :  The Kusalovića Mill Cofferdam.....................Image.PP-KM2. (above-right) :  The Kusalovića Mill House.

Image.PP-KM3. (above) :  The Kusalovića Mill Turbine Chamber.
 
 

[awaiting further images]


AP1.
Selo PRIDVORCI, 2 ponor mills :
The Pridvorci Ponor Mills have their own dedicated Webpage. Please click on the Link at the bottom of this Webpage to go direct to the Pridvorci Ponor Mills Webpage.
.
-.Bračkovića mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..42º 41' 49" N. : 018º 19' 58" E. @ 263m.asl. - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :. Constructed by the Bračković family and paid for by the following families :- Ambulija, Bračković, Ilić, Kisin, Milišić, ...............................Odambulija, Prcović, Skero, Stanić, Vukašinović, Vuković and Zora, all of whom share the use of the Mill.
Opis / Description :  2  x Turbine Mills with access to one Turbine Chamber covered over.
...............................Neoriginalni dijelovi / Not the original working parts, which survive but are set aside. At its maximum useage, the Mill was producing ...............................1½ tons of milled flour per week, using 64 horses each day to take away the grain.
Stanje / Condition :. Radi i danas / Working today. This is the only surviving operational Ponor Mill in Popovo Polje.
Date of Construction :..ca. 1803.
.
 -.Ćatovića mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates : .42º 41' 49" N. : 018º 19' 58" E. @ 263m.asl. - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..Presently being investigated by a surviving member of the Bosnian.Ćatović family.
Opis / Description :..The Turbine Chamber is fully accessible and some of the machinery is in a recoverable condition. Originally designed with ...............................2 x Turbine Mills, access to one Turbine Chamber is now covered over.
...............................The Mill roof needs reconstruction and some parts of the exterior walls need reconstruction.
...............................The mill-stone platform / turbine chamber roof needs fully reinstating and a new front door with a lock is required.
Stanje / Condition :..zapušten;
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].

Please follow this Link to the webpages about the Pridvorci Ponor Mills.

_________________________________
Image (in left-side column),
AP1. Extract from Aerial Photogrammetry Archive File,.Showing the position of both Pridvorci Ponor Mills beside the River Trebišnjica.

Image showing (Left side) the Bračkovića mlinica and (Right side) the Ćatovića mlinica.
(Photo :  by B. Lewarne, 04 March 2002.)
Selo RAVNO, 4 ponor mills (collectively, the "Ravanjske mlinice") :
-.Opačac (srednja) mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..seoski mlin;
Opis / Description :..
Stanje / Condition :..[not yet known]
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
-.[Name 2.], not known.
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :
Stanje / Condition :..
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
-.Vukića mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :
Stanje / Condition :..Abandoned, due to low water-absorption capacity.
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
-.[Name 4.], not known.
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :
Stanje / Condition :..
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
[awaiting images]
Selo SEDLARI, 2 ponor mills :
-.Sedlarska mlinica (istok),
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..42º 41' 49" N. : 018º 19' 58" E. @ 263m.asl. - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica, 40.6m. downstream of the bridge.
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..[not yet known]
Opis / Description :..1 x Cofferdam in good condition;  2 x Turbines in recoverable condition.
Stanje / Condition :..zapušten; Ponor "Prohodan" remains fully accessible and is intermittently active.
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].

-.Sedlarska mlinica (zapad),
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..42º 41' 49" N. : 018º 19' 58" E. @ 263m.asl. - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica, 40.6m. downstream of the bridge.
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..[not yet known]
Opis / Description :..1 x Cofferdam in bad condition;
Stanje / Condition :..zapušten;
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].

_________________________________
Images.(in right-side column),
(Photo : left - Sedlarski Mlin, by SDZB, 28 Sept. 2001.)
(Photo : right - The un-named West Mill. Photo by SDZB, 28 Sept. 2001.)
Map (in left-side column, showing the position of the two ponor mills),
Extract from 1 : 2 500 Map POLJICE 83. 6G8-C2 (K.o. Sedlari 3.) 83-5-1.
Selo STARO SLANO, 4 ponor mills :
-.Ivana mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known];
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..[not yet known];
Opis / Description :..
Stanje / Condition :..u lošem stanju. / in bad condition;
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
-.Paranosa mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known];
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..[not yet known];
Opis / Description :..
Stanje / Condition :..u lošem stanju. / in bad condition;
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
-.Škrivana mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known];
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..[not yet known];
Opis / Description :..
Stanje / Condition :..u lošem stanju. / in bad condition;
-.Ukropina mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known];
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..[Ukropina family, who continue to reside in the Staro Slano Palanka complex.];
Opis / Description :..
Stanje / Condition :..u lošem stanju. / in bad condition;
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
.
-.Details for 1 of the above Mills ??,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..42º 45' 51" N. : 018º 14' 02"E. @ 264m.asl. - desna obala R. Trebišnjica;
[no further details]
.
(Additionally, one of the above mills is also referred to as the "seoski mlin" = village mill.)

Images.SS-M1. (above-left) andSS-M2. (above-right) :  An unidentified mill at Staro Slano.

[awaiting further images]

Selo TULjE, 3 ponor mills :
-.[Name 1.], not known.
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - lijeva obala  R. Trebišnjica.
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :..1 x Bedem -  Ø = 25.5m.;
Stanje / Condition :..Supposedly in good condition;
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
-.[Name 2.], not known.
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - desna obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :
Stanje / Condition :..
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
-.[Name 3.], not known.
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - desna obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :
Stanje / Condition :..
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[no further details]
[awaiting images]
Selo TVRDOŠ, 1 ponor mill :
-.Manastirski mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - desna obala R. Trebišnjica.
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..Tvrdoš Monastery;
Opis / Description :..1 x Bedem -  Ø = 40m.;
Stanje / Condition :  uništen / ruined;
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[awaiting images]
Selo VELjA MEĐA, 1 estavelle mill :
-.Bender mlinica,
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known]  - lijeva obala R. Trebišnjica;
Vlasništvo / Ownership :..seoski mlin;
Opis / Description :  A single Turbine unit with a limited capacity ponor.
Stanje / Condition :  1 x Bedem in structurally sound condition but needs major repair where mill meets approach track.
.................................The traditional limestone-slab roof formerly covering part of the open coffer-dam area has collapsed but is recoverable. All wooden .................................doors and all wooden support posts have gone.
.................................The wooden Turbine machinery has almost rotted away but some essential parts remain intact.
.................................A metal grill gate in the Turbine Chamber has protected the accessible cave system below from becoming blocked.
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[further details pending]
[awaiting images]
Selo ŽAKOVO, 3 ponor mills :
-.[Name 1. istok],
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - desna obala R. Trebišnjica.
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :  1 x Bedem, obim = 22.3m.; 1 x Turbine; mlinsko kolo = 115cm.
Stanje / Condition :..In poor condition.
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
.
-.[Name 2. srednji], not known.
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] 
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :  1 x Turbine.
Stanje / Condition :..In good condition. 
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
.
-.[Name 3..zapad], not known.
Lokacija / Location :  GPS Co-ordinates :..[not yet known] - 
Vlasništvo / Ownership :.
Opis / Description :
Stanje / Condition :..The Mill and its machinery are in very good condition. 
Date of Construction :..[not yet known].
[awaiting images]

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