The Devon Karst Research Society Website.
Practical Notes & Technical Support Information :
Updated 09 April 2008.
This page is not intended to be anything other than a guide in the explanation of how and why we have constructed certain elements of this Website and how you, our visitors, can best experience what we have Web-published in the way it was intended to be experienced. For more detailed explanations of many of the terms used, we suggest that you refer to the many excellent books published on the subject. However, the following historical resumé of the World Wide Web will serve to give some insight behind the more specific details about this Web Site provided in the sectioned paragraphs further below.
Please also refer to the important update in Section 2. below about the direction of future development of this Website.
WEBPAGE CONTENTS :
1...Brief Historical Background to the World Wide Web and the Development of HTML Code.
2...BACKGROUND TO THIS WEBSITE AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS.
3. RECOMMENDED WEB BROWSER PROGRAMMES.
4...INTERNET CONNECTION TYPES.
.....[Recommendations to accomodate changes on this Website as of April 2004.]
5...COMPUTER SCREEN SIZE and SCREEN RESOLUTIONS and READABILITY / VIEWABILITY / PRINTABILITY.
.....[Notification of changes on this Website as of September 2005 which will affect the above attributes.]
6...COMPUTER SCREEN COLOUR RESOLUTIONS and READABILITY / VIEWABILITY / PRINTABILITY.
7...RECOMMENDED MEDIA PLAYER PROGRAMMES.
8...FONTS AND CHARACTER SET CODING USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THIS WEBSITE.
10...WEBSITE PRODUCT RELEASE VERSIONS.
.........APPENDIX 1.0...For our Fatničko Polje Webpages, Proteus Project Webpages and Karstography of the Dinaric Karst in Bosnia & Herzegovina Webpages.
To speed up your navigation through this Webpage, you can select any of the above paragraph-heading Links from 2 - Appendix 1.0. to go immediately to the required part of the text.
1. Brief Historical Background to the World Wide Web and the Development of HTML Code :
The Internet is a collection of computers that are all connected to each other and sharing each other's information. Apart from the 24 hour availability of computers that are known as Servers, typically located at universities and Web-hosting companies, millions of others at domestic locations have intermittent connection via a modem. When switched on and connected to this system, you become part of the Internet. The World Wide Web is the sum total of the collective information available at any given time when you are connected to the Internet. This consists of hundreds of millions of documents or "files", which are written in some form of HTML ( = HyperText Markup Language) code. HTML documents are saved as "Text Only" files. As a result of this, virtually any computer can read a Web page. Whether it is a Macintosh or a Windows device, through to a Unix or a Palm Top device, the World Wide Web is open to all.
Whilst practically any computer can display Web pages, what those pages actually look like depends on the type of computer, the type of monitor system, the type of Internet connection and most importantly, the software programme used to view the page. The software programmes designed for this purpose are known as Browsers. Currently, the most popular Browser software programmes today are Internet Explorer, Netscape and Opera. Unfortunately, none of these presents a Web page exactly like the next.
In the early 1990's., a situation developed whereby commercial competition to attract a greater user-base, saw the sudden development and enhancement of HTML code by Netscape, who devised a series of extensions to the HTML code - that only the Netscape Browser Programme could interpret. This introduced for the very first time such attributes as Web pages with coloured text, photographs and many other enhancements. Web surfers with any other Browser programme would get error messages or strange-looking Web pages ........ or nothing at all !! Web surfers liked those enhancements so much that they flocked to Netscape, which within 2 years had become the most popular Browser programme in the world. Microsoft then started to create its own HTML code enhancements which, in order to attract more users to its software, were non-standard extensions that only Internet Explorer could interpret.
The accepted Governing Body for the World Wide Web is the World Wide Web Consortium, (abbreviated to W3C), which is directed by the Web's English inventor, Mr Tim Berners-Lee. Its primary aim is to convince the Web Community of the importance of the principle of "universality" in its management and construction, without restricting its technical development. More about the W3C can be found at http://www.w3.org.
Both Netscape Communications, (unfortunately, now a part of AOL) and the Microsoft Corporation are members of the W3C., as are many other Web-related companies including Adobe and Macromedia, who make some of the more important Web-tools or cyber devices. The simple concept of "universality" is that all such companies should work together to agree on Standards for all their products, with the result that such standardization would produce cross-Browser Programme compatibility and, therefore, the principle of "universality" would be obtained.
The W3C first tried to encourage such co-operation by standardizing the proprietary HTML code extensions, including some in the official specifications, whilst removing others altogether. They encouraged the manufacturers of Browser Programmes to support the official HTML (= HyperText Markup Language) specifications as closely as possible. The important effect of this would be that any Web-page constructed with HTML code using such universal standards, would behave and appear exactly the same, no matter which Browser Programme was used.
The W3C's next proposal was more bold. The original version of HTML code joined the content, structure and formatting instructions in a single saved document or file, which was simple but not very powerful. They proposed the development of a new system in which these three components could be saved separately and which could be applied not just to a single paragraph or Web page, but to an entire Website if required. So, HTML v. 4. was born, wherein the W3C marked most of the formatting code instructions for future removal from the specification (deprecated) and their use discouraged. At the same time, they created a new system for the formatting code instructions known as CSS (= Cascading Style Sheets). The original specification for CSS was mostly limited to the re-creation of the HTML formatting effects that it now replaced. However, in CSS Level 2., published in 1998., new capabilities were introduced, particularly in the ability to position various elements on a Web page with great precision.
In the meantime, there was still no standard system for adding new features. The W3C considered HTML not a sturdy enough platform upon which to develop and therefore, more structure was needed. Their answer was something called XML ( = Extensible Markup Language) code.
To the un-initiated, XML looks very similar to HTML., complete with tags, attributes and values. But rather than serving as a language just for creating Web pages, XML is a language for creating other languages. XML can be used to design a customized markup language, which will contain tags that actually describe the data that they contain. Although XML is very powerful, it is not nearly as tolerant as HTML. To make it easy for XML parsers ( = software that reads and interprets XML data), XML requires ultra-attention to upper and lower-case letters, quotation marks, closing tags and other details used in its construction. However, whilst the new XML code had been invented, millions of Web pages had already been written in HTML with millions of computers in existence that already knew how to read them using the many existing Browser programmes.
The W3C's solution to this tricky predicament was to re-write HTML code in XML.
This new language has all the features of HTML and therefore, can be understood by all the existing Browser programmes. Since it uses XML's syntax, it gains all of XML's power and flexibility and at the same time, is a perfect foundation for CSS. This ideal new language is known as XHTML ( = Extensible HyperText Markup Language).
The advance in the flexibility of the language was not matched by a flexibility in the characteristics of the Browser programmes to be able to display the vast increase in number of the attributes now possible. There is still no ideal or perfect Browser programme, although improvements are always underway to catch up with the new attributes constantly arising from the developments of the language code extensions.
In this connection, we can report the following information :NETSCAPE :Whilst most of the current Browser software programmes now support most of CSS., the problem is that not everyone uses the latest Browser software programmes, as is indicated by our own Website Visitor-statistics Files.
Whilst until recently, Netscape v. 7.2. offered the most complete support for CSS, Netscape v. 8. currently leads the way in offering the greatest support for CSS and the most comprehensive range of standardized XHTML code extensions and deprecated HTML code extensions, in addition to its own HTML code extensions that remain un-readable to most other Browser programmes.
Additionally, we can report that Netscape v. 8. is a hybrid browser which also employs the Internet Explorer and the Opera Browser platforms if it thinks that these will give better interpretation of HTML pages being viewed than the Netscape Browser. It is a minor revolution in Web Browser Standards and we are very pleased with its performance. There is now a Netscape v. 9.
Opera v. 9.10., though not well known about, is without doubt a very lean and consequently, an extremely fast Browser programme with excellent XHTML and CSS support. It is rapidly coming into fashion. It is probably the very best of all Web-browsing programmes.
MOZILLA FIREFOX :
Mozilla Firefox v. 1. again, though not well known about, is an extremely efficient and thoroughly modern Browser programme with excellent XHTML and CSS support and is rapidly increasing in popularity.
MSN v. 9. Premium is a very popular Browser programme. We strongly recommend against it.
MICROSOFT INTERNET EXPLORER :
Whilst the market leader in Browser programmes is currently Microsoft's Internet Explorer v. 6., its support for XHTML and CSS is noticeably behind the performance of the others previously mentioned above. Couple this with its number of on-going glaring bugs and in our opinion it is not to be recommended. It also shares one of Netscape's traits in that it supports many of its own code extensions that only it can read. The only reason that it is the market leader is that it is automatically included with Microsoft Corporation's software packages in a powerful global marketing strategy, where Microsoft Corporation's software completely dominates. Although it is in this powerful global position, its attitude towards the former market leader Netscape in not adopting some of the latter's specialist code extensions in an effort to achieve "universality", seems rather like an unprofessional "sour grapes" attitude on behalf of the Microsoft Corporation.
GALEON : is beginning to grow in popularity.
EPIPHANY : is beginning to grow in popularity.
SAML (Secutity Assertion Markup Language), is part of the XML-based security family :-
.....-..XML.Encryption:..represents the encrypted content of XML data and the information that enables a recipient to decrypt it;
.....-..XML.Signature :..provides integrity, signature assurance and non-repudiation for Web data;
.....-..XKMS specifies protocols for distributing and registering public keys (used in conjunction with XML Signature);
.....-..XACML provides a specification for policies to access XML documents, based on objects (elements to be accessed in the XML document), subject (the user) and action (read, write, create, delete);
.....-..SPML.(Service Provisioning Markup Language) for exchanging User, Resource and Service Provisioning information.
SAML is an open framework for sharing security information on the Internet through XML documents and is itself an illustration of the versatility of XML
We have not yet started to test the Website on any Unix-based Operating Systems, such as Sun or Linux.
The new Microsoft Operating System MS VISTA, replacing Windows XP., has now come into being. As is usual with anything that the Microsoft Corporation produces, we correctly envisaged problems.
2. BACKGROUND TO THIS WEBSITE AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS :
Since its very beginning, the Website of the Devon Karst Research Society has been constructed using MOZILLA Technology provided through Netscape Communications via its latest available versions of the Netscape Composer HTML / XHTML / CSS Editor Programme. More about the MOZILLA Project can be found at http://www.mozilla.org.
Although NETSCAPE has served our purpose well, we are proposing to radically change the entire structure of the Website with the release of Version 10. constructed via a new website-editing programme. Further news will be posted about this change nearer the time.
Version 10. of this Website will present a modern approach with PHP constructional elements and an easier front-end presentation for the encyclopaedic nature of the information on this Website. It will make navigation through this Website far quicker, easier and more convenient.
This is a necessary development if we are to continue to expand the content of these Webpages.
The very nature of this Website indicates that it will be image-rich. Images require much memory space. There is currently an upper limit to its size. However, when considering the currently published Webpages, together with those in the development stage and completed pages not yet Web-published, we are currently nowhere near to reaching that limit.
We recommend that our visitors read all the specific guidance information below to ensure full readability of this Website.
3. RECOMMENDED WEB BROWSER PROGRAMMES :
We thoroughly test our Webpages on various Browser Platforms during the Webpage construction stage. This testing ensures that we achieve a certain minimum level of reproduction in the presentation of the Webpages on the more popular Browser Programmes. Subsequent re-testing at regular intervals thereafter, ensures that, where possible, we improve the read-compatibility where there are known issues.
We are acutely aware of the HTML / XHTML / CSS read-incompatibility problems that exist across a range of Web Browser Programmes. From viewing the Webpage Statistics Files provided by our Host Server, we can determine, amongst many other facts, not only which Browser Programmes are used by those accessing our Website but the frequency of use of each Browser Programme. This enables us to ensure that we maximise our provision of "readability" to you, our visitors, by maximising both design and read-compatibility with the Browser Programmes you are using. In practice, this is effected by modifying some of the original language code provided by Netscape.
Considering the factual information given in the Historical Resumé in Section 1. above, please remember that not all Web Browser programmes will read HTML, XHTML, VRML., PHP. and CSS in the same way. Owing to the notable incompatibilities between various HTML / XHTML-write and read programmes and also because this Website has been constructed in Netscape, we cannot recommend the use of either AOL or any version of Internet Explorer.
Although, currently, it is not the most frequently used by visitors to our Website, we strongly recommend the use of the Netscape Browser for obtaining rapid downloading and full compatibility and benefit of reading all HTML / XHTML / CSS attributes on this Website. If you do not have the latest and best of the NETSCAPE Browser Programmes, Netscape Browser v. 126.96.36.199., it can be downloaded free at : www.netscape.com
NETSCAPE will also provide a much richer range of Web-browsing attributes, including the ability to browse multiple Websites and manage multiple Webpages in the same window by clicking on tabs to switch between each Website or Webpage. A wide range of options for the Customization of the appearance and functionality of the Web-browsing interface is another advantage with NETSCAPE. The browser includes an effective pop-up blocker.
For those who do not yet have a Broadband connection, the ability to download as fast as possible means less wasted time and therefore, less cost. This is perhaps a major factor when viewing our Webpages connected with our programme of activities in Europe. Many of these Webpages contain large images and if accessed via a Narrow-band connection (56kB/sec or less), may take some time to download, which may even "time out" the request. NETSCAPE is of benefit in such cases. Additionally, the NETSCAPE Download Manager also gives you the capability to transfer multiple files at once and even save complete Webpages for off-line browsing, thus saving further Internet connection costs.
WARNING NOTE ABOUT THE NETSCAPE BROWSER.
Netcape was taken over and put under the control of AOL during 2007. The Netscape Webmail Browser has been systematically integrated into the AIM Browser. AOL have systematically destroyed Netscape during the interim period.
You should be warned that as of 01 March 2008., all official support for Netscape has ceased completely. Although the Netscape Browsers continue to perform, users who still maintain their Netscape Webmail and Browser systems are being directed towards a new Mozilla-based Web Browsing programme called FLOCK, which was supposedly created by the former members of the Netscape Team.
Another MOZILLA-based Browser programme is that issued by MOZILLA FIREFOX v. 2. This is an excellent Browser and is especially suited to this Website because, as its name suggests, it uses MOZILLA Technology. We can thoroughly recommend its use. This Web-browser's Homepage can be found at http://www.mozilla.org. from where it can be downloaded free.
An even faster Web-browsing Programme is OPERA v. 9., which, in similarity with NETSCAPE, does not suffer from the gliches that are ever present in the ageing Internet Explorer Programme. This Web-browser's Homepage can be found at www.opera.com from where it can be downloaded free. Although it may not be fully compatible with all of the Netscape HTML attributes, it is the fastest of all the Web-browsers and in our opinion, is also the very best. It usually gives a faithful reproduction of our Website.
The Internet Browser Programme MSN Premium is not free of charge. Our Website Statistics File suggests that this Browser programme causes the greatest number of problems for visitors to our Website.
4. INTERNET CONNECTION TYPES :
Recommendations to accomodate changes on this Website as of April 2006.
We are able to determine the type of connection used to access our Website and through which Providers the connections are made. We also know the range of Internet Connection types provided by each of the Service Providers.
In this respect, we are aware of the fundamental requirement of all our clients, irrespective of their connection type (ie. 33 kB/sec. / 56 kB/sec. / or any of the Medium Band to Broad Band Connection speeds), that they wish to be able to download our Webpages as fast as possible, without incurring long delays or being "timed out" whilst waiting for large files or images to download.
Hitherto, we have tried our best to design our Webpages with the minimum of unnecessary "cosmetic clutter". However, we are proceeding to the stage where it is no longer possible to reconcile the slowness of the 33 kB/sec. connection speed within the more information-efficient design features of our Webpages. The global "industry standard" is a minimum 56 kB/sec. connection speed and, as of April 2004., this was the "connection speed" baseline from which our data retrieval / download testing was undertaken.
However, as of April 2006., this has changed again and our new "connection speed" baseline from which our data retrieval / download testing is now undertaken is 512kB/sec. This factor is shadowing technology-availability developments in R. Bosnia & Herzegovina, which is our nominated "lowest-common-denominator-country" for such developments. Although much of that country continues to use the 56 kB/sec. connection speed, Broadband connections are now being taken up rapidly and early WLAN systems are now just becoming available.
We recommend the use of one of the MEDIUM BAND (256 kB/sec.to.512 kB/sec.) or BROAD BAND (1 MB/sec. to 2.2 MB/sec.) connection speeds currently available.
Services or options offering connection Speeds of around 512 kB/sec. to 2.2 MB/sec. are the optimal ones for accessing any of the information on this Website. Anything faster is currently unnecessary. The benefits of >2.2 MB/sec. to 8 MB/sec. WIDE BAND connection speeds will only usually be observed by those undertaking Web Publishing activities or managing a website and by those downloading large video files.
There is an option open to us in the future for more fully accomodating the individual connection-speed limitations of our visitors. The option would be expensive in memory and would mean the web-publishing of at least 2 versions of the image-rich web-pages. In effect, this would provide versions more compatible with the selected connection speeds of narrow-band and broadband. The visitor would select the link appropriate to their connection type. However, currently this is only perceived as a possiblility for the future. We shall await further developments in connection types before deciding what to do.
5. COMPUTER SCREEN SIZE and SCREEN RESOLUTIONS and READABILITY / VIEWABILITY / PRINTABILITY :
Notification of changes on this Website as of September 2005 which will affect the above attributes.
Since the start-up of this Website, its construction and design has been undertaken on PCs with an SXGA Screen Resolution (1280 x 1024 = 1.3 M Pixels). However, as of April 2004., we were constructing the layout as viewed on UXGA Screens (1400 x 1050 = 1.47 M Pixels). This has again changed due to unforeseen circumstances and reluctantly, we are now constructing the layout as viewed on a.WUXGA Screen (1929 x 1200 = 2.304 M Pixels), but with ordinary UXGA dimensions in mind. This aspect of VIEWABILITY can be critical as to whether you, our visitors, are looking at what we are seeing during construction. At worst, on early VGA and SVGA Screens as well as XGA and SXGA Screens, you will be given a Horizontal Scroll bar at the base of the Browser Window (where none is needed on a UXGA Screen) and a much longer range for the Vertical Scroll Bar.
This situation also affects PRINTABILITY and whether you need to set your printer settings to print the required webpages in the PORTRAIT or LANDSCAPE modes and / or whether you will need to reduce the size of the whole page in the "Print Preview" window to contain it further. We must advise that because the Website construction is now being undertaken on WUXGA Screens, but still with ordinary UXGA dimensions in mind, many of its Webpages can only be conveniently printed in the LANDSCAPE mode using A4 size paper or better still, in the PORTRAIT mode using A3 size paper.
Most Browser Programmes will give users the ability to reduce (and increase) the TEXT SIZE on the Browser screen, to accomodate the contents of the Page within a reduced viewing area. Doing this does not, however, reduce the size of images and may sometimes have the undesirable effect of changing the layout appearance, placing the text in a different position. However, if used with skill, it can be a useful Browser Tool.
To see what screensize resolution (pixels) your screen is currently set at and to see if it can be changed :->..go to the START Menu and select CONTROL PANEL.Another setting that can seen and adjusted in the same Window is the dpi (dots per inch). When constructing this Website, we use the 96 dpi setting for the screen resolution. We also use this value when determining the final size / resolution of the JPEG Images.
>..In the DISPLAY PROPERTIES Window, select the SETTINGS Tab.
6. COMPUTER SCREEN COLOUR RESOLUTIONS and READABILITY / VIEWABILITY / PRINTABILITY :
The issue of displayed colour is a very complex one. We are able to determine the type of colour monitor used by visitors when accessing our Website.
There is currently a range of 4 colour resolution settings for monitor screens :8 bit screens, providing a capability for 256 colours to be displayed at any one time;The greater number of our visitors are viewing our Website at either 24 bit or 32 bit colour resolution. A few are using the early 8 bit or 16 bit colour screens.
16 bit screens, providing a capability for 65,536 colours to be displayed at any one time;
24 bit screens, providing a capability for 16,777,216 colours to be displayed at any one time;
32 bit screens, providing a capability for 4,294,967,300 colours to be displayed at any one time.
We are constructing this Website using a 32 bit colour setting. To see what colour resolution (bits) your screen is currently set at and to see if it can be changed :->..go to the START Menu and select CONTROL PANEL.The higher the setting, the greater the range of colours you will see displayed on your screen at any one time.
>..In the DISPLAY PROPERTIES Window, select the SETTINGS Tab.
>..In the SETTINGS Window, there will be an indicator showing your current colour resolution, in bits. If it is not already set at the maximum, you may have an option to set it to a higher value.
7. RECOMMENDED MEDIA PLAYER PROGRAMMES :
We suggest the use of WINDOWS MEDIA PLAYER v. 11.0. for playing back short video sequences which are .MPEG (.MPG) and .WMV files on this Website. You can download and save this software free from Microsoft's Website at :
On the Microsoft Homepage go to PRODUCT RESOURCES and select "Downloads". In the DOWNLOAD CENTRE Window, select WINDOWS MEDIA PLAYER 11. and follow the on-screen download instructions.
8. FONTS AND CHARACTER SET CODING USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THIS WEBSITE :
The Text content of this Website is written in English (Latin Alphabet) and other Eastern European Languages and Alphabets. In order to maximize the chances of universal readability of the Text content throughout this Website, we have decided to employ a simplifed or standard approach using the ARIAL Font as a norm. There are a very few exceptions in the use of this Font style. If the text FONT reproduced by your Browser programme does not reproduce the ARIAL Font but instead, for example, produces a default substitute such as Times New Roman, you may be able to override this by adjusting your own settings, if it will allow you to do so, and then re-loading the Webpage. The NETSCAPE Browser Programme will allow you to do this.
Unicode is designed to be a universal system for encoding all of the characters in all of the world's languages. By assigning a unique code to each character in each language, Unicode allows us to convey our text without the fear that it may be corrupted by a visitor's browser. The form of Unicode used in HTML and XHTML is called UTF-8
To continue the theme of encouraging universal readability, we have therefore employed the CHARACTER SET Encoding of UTF-8 throughout the whole of this Website, without exception. This is more for the benefit of our foreign visitors who access the Webpages relating to the Society's European Activities, which contain text in European Languages which use different alphabets, many with diacritical signs attached to the characters. Again, if there is difficulty experienced with this aspect of Text Readability, it is most likely that it is the Settings of the visitor's computer which need to be adjusted. You should be able to override such problems by adjusting your own Browser window settings, if it will allow you to do so, and then re-loading the Webpage.The NETSCAPE Browser Programme will allow you to do this with great ease, as follows :-9. IMAGE-COMPRESSION FILES :
>..Select VIEW on the top Menu bar;
>..Select CHARACTER SET;
>..Set the CHARACTER SET to UTF-8.
In the INTERNET EXPLORER Browser Programme :-
>..Select VIEW on the top Menu bar;
>..Set the ENCODING to UTF-8.
In the OPERA Browser Programme :-
>..Select VIEW on the top Menu bar;
>..Set the ENCODING to UNICODE.
One method to help speed up download times of information for our visitors is to compress the images on our Website. There are three main compression methods available, which correspond to three separate formats : LZW (for GIF Images); JPEG and PNG. Each of these methods has its drawbacks. All three methods can be understood by both NETSCAPE and INTERNET EXPLORER Browser Programmes. This is not the place to engage in an analysis of these three methods of file compression. Suffice it to say that the optimal method of compression for photographs and other images that have many different colours is JPEG compression, which we have used to maximize the principle of universal accessibility.
JPEG is not the ideal solution to image file-compression, insofar as it inherently uses LOSSY (LOSSEY) technology in order to achieve the end result. In effect, this means that it permanently deletes some of the image information in order to save space. Uncompressing the image does not restore the lost data. We have overcome many of the undesirable effects of the LOSSY technology by loading larger images to start with, rather than by using the suggested route of blurring the original imagery before saving as a JPEG File.
By studying our Website Statistics Files, we observe that our strategy in this direction is very successful, with practically zero fallout in the downloading of our Image Files.
To simplify matters and to further encourage universal accessibility, we have not disabled the capacity of the Image Files to be separately downloaded, saved and used by visitors to this Website.
10. OUR WEBSITE PRODUCT RELEASE VERSIONS :
1. Release Versions :a) major release :
any product release where the Version number to the left of the decimal point is increased by one (e.g. 4.0 to 5.0)
b) minor release :
any product release where the number immediately to the right of the decimal point is increased (e.g. 4.5 to 4.6)
c) maintenance release :
any product release where the number in the second place after the decimal point is increased (e.g. 4.5.1 to 4.5.2)
Fatničko Polje Webpages :
"Proteus Project" Webpages :
Karstography of the Dinaric Karst in Bosnia & Herzegovina Webpages :
• All of the Fatničko Polje Webpage Sections of the Society's Website are image-rich and as a consequence, to assist the browser in accessing its information in a comparatively short period of time, we have split them into various sub-Sections. An INDEX to all the sub-Sections is given via the appropriate.Link.below. The INDEX page provides navigational Links.for the whole of the Fatničko Polje Webpages.
• The "Proteus Project" Webpages and Karstography of the Dinaric Karst in Bosnia & Herzegovina Sections of the Society's Website are likewise becoming more image-rich.
As with any Website, please remember that when re-visiting pages on this site, you may have to apply the "REFRESH" option to clear previously cached information. To enable the .MPEG and other Video Files, you will require the installation of a sound card.
1. DIGITAL STILLS IMAGES :
These are all digitally derived as .JPEG image-compression format files, either taken originally in the field or are copied from normal photographic print originals. The largest image that we publish is generally of 1.5MB in size. Where detailed Text images or MAPS and PLANS are reproduced, these may have been either scanned images, saved as BITMAP Files or images taken with a variety of cameras may be saved as a .GIF File, to maintain the quality of detail. Due to their larger memory capacity, these images would be available as Links.
Wherever possible, a photographer is attributed to each image and the original photographic method employed is cited. If a digital reproduction of a lithographed image-original is given in these pages, the source is always acknowledged.
• Microsoft Windows Versions 95 and onwards incorporate programmes which will allow users to view JPEG files. However, we recommend the more advanced programmes or separate software packages to enable the browser to view true colours.
[NOTE About the IPIX Image delivery format :
The Society is currently experimenting with this image format. IPIX is an interactive file, produced by a special camera or camera adaptor, displayed via a Java Applet, It is nothing short of a minor revolution in virtual reality images and we like it very much. The problem is storage space!]
2. SHORT VIDEO SEQUENCES :
These normally range in duration from 10 to 60 seconds and are all digitally derived as MPEG 1. or MPEG 2. / 1. moving- image-compression format files, taken originally.in the field.. Wherever possible, a photographer is attributed to each sequence.
• These sequences may be accompanied by an audio signal stored on an Audio Format MPEG 1. Layer 2. (32 kHz.) File. The actual moving images have varying resolutions according to the camera used and the rendering process employed. To preserve the quality of these recordings, we recommend that these images are viewed at no greater magnification than 100%.
The minimum requirement Software is WINDOWS MEDIA PLAYER v.7.1, which can be obtained as a free download from Microsoft.
MS WINDOWS XP HOME / XP PROFESSIONAL EDITIONS and Windows VISTA all have the latest version of WINDOWS MEDIA PLAYER v.11. as standard. It is also available as a free download and will give enhanced quality.
3. LONG VIDEO SEQUENCES :
These are always recorded in the field to better than "Broadcast Quality" standard, as DV moving-image-compression format files. Up until 2004., some of our underground sequences were recorded using the "Zero Lux" setting on the camera, producing a black & white film. As of 2005., underground images are in colour. Wherever possible, a photographer is attributed to each sequence.
• To access them, the user will be required to have MS WINDOWS 2000 Millenium Edition (ME) or MS WINDOWS XP HOME / PROFESSIONAL EDITION or WINDOWS VISTA software. We recommend a dedicated video-viewing software package to obtain maximum viewing quality. The video sequences of 60 seconds and longer have been enabled as video streaming files, published as .WMV File types and available via Links. This should enable real-time access and gliche-free viewing.
In the future, more support information will be published here about software options for viewing video streaming files. In the meantime, if you have a problem viewing the moving images, please contact our Webmaster for advice, stating what Operating System you are using and the Software Package(s) / Programme(s) you are employing to access the images.
The Society is now sufficiently technically enabled to be able to move forward on producing high quality "Broadcast Quality" Long Video Sequences for access in the next Version 10. Series of this Website, due to be Web-published in late 2008. Work is in hand preparing material for this event and in expanding the platform on which it is to be based.