FATNIČKO POLJE - ФАТНИЧКО ПОЉЕ
FAUNA  -  ФАУНА.
The Devon Karst Research Society & Speleološko Društvo "Zelena Brda"
Istočna Hercegovina, Bosna i Hercegovina.
Источна Херцеговина, Босна и Херцеговина,
FATNIČKO POLJE - ФАТНИЧКО ПОЉЕ
Fatnica Polje, Eastern Herzegovina, Bosnia & Herzegovina.
updated 10 April 2006. Section 14.0.    FAUNA  -  ФАУНА.
[Excludes Hypogean Fauna]
FP Section 14.0. Webpage Contents :
Sect..14.1...General Introduction. (opposite).
Sect. 14.2...Surface Fauna :
.....Sub. Sect. 14.2.1...Mammalia.
.....Sub. Sect. 14.2.2...Amphibia.
.....Sub. Sect. 14.2.3...Reptilia.
.....Sub. Sect. 14.2.4...Insectivora.
Sect. 14.3...Hypogean Fauna :
.....Sub. Sect. 14.3.1...Proteus anguinus.

Click on the underlined Links above to move down to the Sections quickly.

14.1...GENERAL INTRODUCTION  -  ГЕНЕРАЛНИ ОПИС  -  GENERALNI OPIS :
The area of Fatničko Polje abounds in wildlife. Most of the original surface mammalian wild fauna has been hunted to near extinction or no longer frequents the area due to the presence of man. The karst underground remains populated by all previously recorded species.
Unfortunately, due to severe hydrographic changes or due to the chemical or biological pollution of the natural environment by human activities, there has also been an adverse anthropogenic impact on the underground species, whereby their populations are much reduced in some instances.
We shall detail all previously recorded surface and underground species, together with specific locations and any other corroborative information.

We have been informed that there is currently no Species "Red List" of endangered fauna within BiH.

FATNIČKO POLJE  -  SURFACE FAUNA

MAMMALIA  -  СИСАВЦИ  -  SISAVACI

14.2.    SURFACE FAUNA :

14.2.1....MAMMALIA  -  СИСАВЦИ  -  SISAVACI :
The recorded surface mammalian fauna of the district are as follows :-
..........Wild Boar, (Sus scrofa); Fox; Wolf, (Canis lupis); Wildcat, (Felis silvestris); Lynx, (Lynx lynx).

FATNIČKO POLJE :
MAMMALIA  -  СИСАВЦИ  -  SISAVACI
.....14.2.1.1...THE WILD BOAR  -  ДИВЉА СВИЊА  -  DIVLJA SVINJA :
There is strong evidence for the continued existence of this animal within Fatničko Polje. Photo FP14.1. below indicates the areas of soil disturbance made by roaming wild boar in the area of the Upper Polje during the 48 hours prior to 05 March 2002, when this view was taken.


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Photo FP14.1.  (Photo:  B. Lewarne, 05 March 2002.)  (Digital Sony FD92)
Evidence of the presence of Wild Boar, (Sus scrofa), roaming the polje floor.
Their disturbances to the soil in the search for food, can be clearly seen.
 
 
 

This species rests during the daylight hours in the safety of the shade of the extensive wooded hillsides of the polje.

FATNIČKO POLJE :
ВОДОЗЕМЦИ  -  VODOZEMCI  -  AMPHIBIA
14.2.2....AMPHIBIA  -  ВОДОЗЕМЦИ  -  VODOZEMCI :
The recorded surface amphibian fauna of the district are as follows :-
..........Frog; CommonToad, (Bufo bufo).
FATNIČKO POLJE :
ВОДОЗЕМЦИ  -  VODOZEMCI  -  AMPHIBIA
.....14.2.2.1...TOAD  -  КРАСТАЧА  -  KRASTAČA :
Evidence of the presence of Toads can be found on the north perimeter of the polje in and around the permanently wet areas caused by the permanent authigenic karst springs.


 
 
 
 

Taxonomy.
Kingdom :  Animalia
Phylum :  Chordata
Class :  Amphibia
Subclass : 
Order : 
Suborder : 
Species :  Bufo bufo.
 

Photo FP14.2.  (Photo:  B. Lewarne, 01 September 2002.)  (Digital Sony FD92)
This large example of a Common Toad (Bufo bufo) has been found for three consecutive years (2002-2004) to be living in the
stone cistern structure of the captured karst spring of Izvor "Veliki Jastrebinjak".
 

FATNIČKO POLJE :
REPTILIA  -  ГМИЗАВЦИ  -  GMIZAVCI
 
 

Photo FP14.4.  (Photo :  B. Lewarne, 17 July 2004.)
An example of a Spur-thighed Tortoise, Testudo graeca,
which has accidentally fallen down into a vertical jama.
It was successfully returned to the surface.
14.2.3....REPTILIA  -  ГМИЗАВЦИ  -  GMIZAVCI :
The recorded surface reptilian fauna of the district are as follows :-
..........Tortoise, (Testudo graeca); Snake, (Vipera berus); Snake, (Vipera amodita); 

.....14.2.3.1...TORTOISE  -  ЖАБА  -  KORNJAČA :


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.
.
.
Taxonomy.
Kingdom :  Animalia
Phylum :  Chordata
Class :  Reptilia
Subclass :  Anapsida
Order :  Testudines
Suborder :  Cryptodira
Species :  Testudo graeca.
 

Photo FP14.3.  (Photo :  Hungarian Team, 17 July 2004.)
An example of a Spur-thighed Tortoise, (Testudo graeca), which abound in the area.

The dietary requirement of this species to contume half its body-weight of calcium accounts for its appearance in areas of rocky scrub on a limestone base, where it can consume large amounts of edible calcium carbonate.
The species is native to Morocco, Algeria and adjacent Spain, eastwards to Iran, northwards to the Black Sea area and westwards to the Central Balkans.

FATNIČKO POLJE
INSECTIVORA
14.2.4....INSECTIVORA :
The recorded surface insects of the district are as follows :-
..........Firebrat,.Thermobia domestica, (Packard);
FATNIČKO POLJE
INSECTIVORA - COLEOPTERA
.....14.2.4.1...COLEOPTERA :
The recorded surface beetles of the district are as follows :-
FATNIČKO POLJE
INSECTIVORA - LEPIDOPTERA
.....14.2.4.2...LEPIDOPTERA :
The recorded surface butterflies of the district are as follows :-
FATNIČKO POLJE
INSECTIVORA - THYSANURA
.....14.2.4.3...THYSANURA :
The recorded surface Thysanura of the district are as follows :-

Firebrat,.Thermobia domestica, (Packard).
Habitat :..Firebrats normally live outdoors in dark places under rocks, bark and leaf mould, in the nests of birds and mammals and in ant and termite nests. They are quick-moving. Unlike silverfish, firebrats prefer areas of high temperature (90° F and above) and high humidity
Description :..Silverfish and firebrats are wingless, flat insects with two long, slender antennae on the front and three long, slender "bristles" at the rear of a tapered, carrot-shaped body. They are ½ inch long when fully grown. They are covered with shiny silver scales that give the body a metallic sheen and have two long, slender antennae at the head and three long, antennae-like appendages at the rear. These three appendages, one directed straight back and the other two curving outward, plus the two antennae, are nearly as long as the body. Sometimes these insects are known as "bristletails." Silverfish are most active at night and run very swiftly with a wiggling motion that resembles the swimming action of a fish.
Firebrats are similar to silverfish in overall appearance but lack the silvery sheen. The body color is grey or brown, usually with numerous dark markings that give a mottled appearance. Firebrats are pests primarily because they are a nuisance and an annoyance. Firebrats are known for their swift movement, and some can run sideways or jump. Construction drawings of a Firebrat are provided below.

Life Cycle :..Adults lay eggs in small groups containing up to 50 eggs. The eggs which are whitish, oval and about 1/32 inch long, are very small and deposited in cracks and crevices. A female normally lays less than 100 eggs during her lifespan of two to eight years. Under ideal conditions, the eggs hatch in two weeks, but may take up to two months to hatch. The young nymphs are very much like the adults except for size. Several years are required before they are sexually mature, and they must mate after each moult if viable eggs are to be produced. Populations do not build up rapidly because of their slow development rate and the small number of eggs laid. Unlike other insects, they continue to moult after becoming adults. Forty-one moults have been recorded for one firebrat. Firebrats, depending on the species, may reach maturity in three to twenty-four months. They are chewing insects. Populations do not build up fast.
Origin :..Firebrats are primitive insects, similar to some of the earliest insects that scuttled about in the first forests of the Devonian and the Carboniferous periods some 300 - 400 million years ago. Similar creatures were scuttling around when the first vertebrates - including our distant ancestors - found their way onto land. They, or creatures very like them, saw the dinosaurs come and go.
Occurrence in Fatničko Polje :..Large numbers of this ancient species were observed running around on the bare and very hot limestone bedrock below the Dam in front of Estavela "Obod" during July 2004.

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