Anatomically-modern Human
but "Cattedown Man" was more robustly built.
.
The Devon Karst Research Society.
The Homepages for the
CATTEDOWN BONE CAVES,
Cattedown, Plymouth, Devon, England, U.K.

Section 20.0.    GLOSSARY OF SELECTED ANATOMICAL, ANTHROPOLOGICAL, OSTEOLOGICAL, PALAEONTOLOGICAL & OTHER SCIENTIFIC TERMS.
If using the information on this page in conjunction with reading and understanding the Fossil Catalogue pages or technical reports on the fossil Collections, we suggest that you print out this page.

Text Revised on 13 December 2010.

What is Speleo-Vertebrate Palaeontology?
Palaeontology is the study of fossils. Vertebrate Palaeontology is therefore the study of the fossilized remains of vertebrates (animals with backbones). Such remains consist, for the most part, of the bones themselves, which may or may not be fossilized in the true sense of the word. There may be additional associated remains such as coprolites, which can often offer an insight into dietary details of deceased animals of the species Hyaena or Wolverine, which gnaw or eat bones.
However, where such remains of vertebrates are associated with caves, their study comes under the remit of the science of Speleo-Vertebrate Palaeontology - one of the speleo-sciences.
PALAEO-ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROGRESSION OF GENUS..Homo
[with the more recent species at the top of the column]

Kingdom :..Animal....|...Phylum :..Chordata.
Class :..Mammal....|...Order :..Primate.
Super Family :..Hominoidea (Hominoids).
Family :..HOMINIDAE (Hominids).
Sub-family :..HOMININAE (Hominins)
Genus :..Homo
Species :..[as illustrated below with Type Specimen annotation.]
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Species :..HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS.
(common name :  Modern Man)
130 000 years BP to the present
.[Skull as illustrated in Entry 121 below]

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A "Denisovan" Fossil skull.
Denisova Cave, Southern Siberia.
An "Archaic" Human.

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Species :..HOMO FLORESIENSIS.
100 000 - 12 000 years BP.
LB1 (cranium & post-cranial material) Liang Bua, Flores, Indonesia.
An "archaic" Human.

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Species :..HOMO SAPIENS NEANDERTHALENSIS.
(common name :  Neanderthal Man)
127 000 - 30 000 years BP.
The image of the hominin above is of a reconstruction, by Anthropologist Gary J. Sawyer, of the American Museum of Natural History and Blaine C. Maley, Anthropology Department, Washington University, of the 1909 La Ferrassie find in France.
This specimen is dated to be 50,000 years old.
An "archaic" Human.

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Species :..HOMO HELMEI.
250 000 years BP.
Florisbad (cranium) Florisbad, SA., Africa. 

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Species :..HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS.
also :..Homo sapiens (archaic)
(common name :  Heidelberg Man)
500 000 - 300 000 years BP.
The hominin specimen illustrated below was unearthed in 1992 in Sierra se Atapuerca, Spain.
This skull (illustrated above) has been dated at 300,000 years ago.

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Species :..HOMO RHODESIENSIS.
600 000 - 300 000 years BP.
Broken Hill (cranium)
Broken Hill or Kabwe, Zambia, Southern Africa.

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Species :..HOMO ANTECESSOR.
780 000 years BP.
ATD6-69 (face) Gran Dolina, Spain, SW Europe.

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.
Species :..HOMO HABILIS.
(Australopithecus?)
2 500 000 - 1 600 000 years BP.
The hominin specimen illustrated above was unearthed in 1992 in Sierra se Atapuerca, Spain.
This skull (illustrated above) has been dated at 300,000 years ago.

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Species :..HOMO ERECTUS.
1 800 000 - 100 000 years BP.
Trinil 2 (skullcap) Trinil, Indonesia, Asia.

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.

Species :..HOMO ERGASTER.
2 000 000 - 600 000 years BP.
The hominin specimen illustrated above is
KNM-ER 3733 [Koobi Fora] - 1.7 million y.a.
also KNM-ER 992 (mandible) Koobi Fora, Kenya, Africa.

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Species :..HOMO RUDOLFENSIS.
2 400 000 - 1 800 000 years BP.
(Kenyanthropus?)
KNM-ER 1470 (cranium) Koobi Fora, Kenya, E. Africa.

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TM 266-01-060-1, "Toumai", (cranium)
HOMO SAHELANTHROPUS TCHADENSIS.
7 000 000 - 6 000 000 years BP.
Discovered by Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye in 2001 from the Upper Miocene of the Toros-Menalla locality, western Djurab Desert,
N. Chad, North Central Africa.
Estimated age is between 6 and 7 million years.
Currently, this is the earliest known form of the Genus HOMO combined with the first of the Sub-family.HOMININAE (Hominins)
The Image above is a mostly complete cranium with a small brain (between 320 and 380 cc.) (Brunet et al. 2002, Wood 2002).

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HUMAN FAMILY TREE

 

 1. .ACETABULUM. One of a matched pair (left and right) of hemispherical depressions on the PELVIS, which articulates with the head of the FEMUR. All 3 divisions of the HIP BONE take part in its formation.
 2.  ANTERIOR. Coming before; away from the axis.
 3.  ASTERIAL.
 4.  ASTRAGALUS. The ankle bone.
 5.  ATLAS. The first vertebra of the neck which supports the skull.
 6.  AXIS. The second vertebra of the neck.
 7.  BOVINE. Pertaining to Cattle. (cf. Bos).
 8.  BRACHY-CEPHALIC. Short-headed, having a skull whose breadth is 78-80% or more of its length.
 9.  BRACHY-DACTYLIC. Abnormal shortness of fingers and toes.
10.  BRYOLOGY. The science of the study of Mosses and Liverworts.
11. CALCANEUM. The heel bone.
12. CALVARIUM. Scalp or Brain Case, excluding the facial bones and lower jaw but including the Occipital Bone, the 2 Parietal Bones, the Frontal Bone, the 2 Temporal Bones, the Sphenoid Bone and the Ethmoid Bone.
13. CANINE. Like or pertaining to the dog. (cf. Canis).
14. CANINE TOOTH. A sharp-pointed tooth between the incisors and the pre-molars.
15. CANNON BONES.  In mammals in which the digits are reduced in number by the fusion of the persisting metacarpals or metatarsals, which supports the limb from the knee or wrist or hock [hough] to fetlock.
16. CAPRINE. Pertaining to the Goat. (cf. Caprus).
17. CARIES. Decay of teeth.
18. CARNASSIAL TOOTH. Either the last Upper Premolar or the first Lower Molar in carnivorous mammals, adapted for tearing flesh.
19. CARPAL BONES. (WRIST or CARPUS). Comprising 8 bones in each limb or hand. Arranged in 2 rows, they comprise the SCAPHOID, LUNATE, TRIQUETRAL, PISIFORM, TRAPEZIUM, TRAPEZOID, CAPITATE and HAMATE.
20. CAUDAL. Pertaining to the tail.
21. CERATOID. Horny.
22. CERVICAL VERTEBRA. Vertebra of the neck, having a small Body, with Spinous and Lateral Processes. Has the characteristic Foramen Transversarium. The 1st. (ATLAS) and 2nd. (AXIS) Cervical Vertebrae are specialized.
23. CERVINE. Pertaining to Deer. (cf. Cervus).
24. CLAVICLE. (or COLLAR BONE). One of the two matched pairs of bones of the shoulder girdle, being 'S' shaped and articulating with the STERNUM and SCAPULA.
25. COCCYGEAL VERTEBRA. In the Human skeleton, there are normally 4 or 5 such bones which are degenerate. These bones form the Coccyx and continue the downward curve of the Sacrum.
26. CONDYLE. A protruberance at the end of a bone serving for articulation with another bone.
27. CRANIUM. (of the skull); the bones enclosing the brain, viz. the Calvarium or Brain Case, and the Face.
28. CUBO-NAVICULAR. The scaphoid (boat-shaped) bone in the ankle joint.
29. DAKRYON.
30. DENISOVANS. In December 2010., scientists declare that an entirely separate type of human, identified from bones found in Denisova Cave in Siberia, co-existed and interbred with our own species.
......A study in Nature journal shows that Denisovans co-existed with Neanderthals and interbred with our species - perhaps around 50,000 years ago.
......An international group of researchers sequenced a complete genome from one of the ancient hominins (human-like creatures), based on nuclear DNA extracted from a finger bone.
......According to the researchers, this provides confirmation there were at least 4 distinct types of human in existence when anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) first left their African homeland.
......Scientists were able to analyse DNA from a tooth and from a finger bone excavated in the Denisova cave in southern Siberia.
......The individuals belonged to a genetically distinct group of humans that were distantly related to Neanderthals but even more distantly related to us.
......The finding adds weight to the theory that a different kind of human could have existed in Eurasia at the same time as our species. There was a western form that were the Neanderthal and an eastern form, the Denisovans.
......The study shows that Denisovans interbred with the ancestors of the present day people of the Melanesian region north and north-east of Australia. Melanesian DNA comprises between 4% and 6% Denisovan DNA.
......Along with modern humans, scientists knew about the Neanderthals and a dwarf human species found on the Indonesian island of Flores, Homo Floresiensis. To this list, experts must now add the Denisovans.
31. DISTAL. At the outer end.
32. DOLICHO-CEPHALIC. Long-headed, having a breadth of skull less than 78% of its length.
33. DORSAL or THORACIC VERTEBRA. Has facets for articulation with Ribs. The Body or Centrum and Transverse or Lateral Processes are larger.
34. EPIPHYSIS. The ends of a bone which have their own centres of ossification.
35. EQUINE. Pertaining to the Horse. (cf. Equus).
36. ETHMOID. A cuboidal, sieve-like bone of the skull's Calvarium.
37. FELINE. Pertaining to the Cat. (cf. Felis).
38. FEMUR. The thigh bone. One of a matched pair of bones (left and right) of the lower limbs or legs, being the longest bone of the skeleton.
......The proximal head is connected with the cylindrical shaft by a neck.. Distally, there are CONDYLES which coalesce in front.
39. FIBULA. The outer of the two bones from the knee to the ankle in the hind limbs. One of the two matched pairs (left and right) of bones the lower leg, being slender throughout its length.
40. FORAMEN. A small opening.
41. FRONTAL. Of or belonging to the front or forehead of the Skull, containing the Supraorbital Ridges, which are important in sexing.
42. GLABELLA. Part of the forehead between the eyebrows and just above their level.
43. GORILLINAE (Gorillas). A Sub-family of Hominids pertaining only to the gorilla lineage of evolutionary history.
44. HOMINIDAE (Hominids). A Family containing the Sub-families HOMININAE (Hominins or Humans); GORILLINAE (Gorillas) and PANINAE (Chimpanzees). 
45. HOMININAE (Hominins). A Sub-family of Hominids pertaining only to the human lineage of evolutionary history.
46a. HOMININ. Definition of the word from New Scientist, 17 Feb. 2007., Vol. 193. (2591)., p.52. (as a .pdf document Link).
46b. HOMININ. Definition of the word by Dr Simon Underdown in Nature, 07 December 2006., Vol. 444., p.680. (as a .pdf document Link).
........NB :  All members of the genus Homo are Hominins but not all Hominins are members of the genus Homo. Hominin is of course a sub family level of the Linnaean System. 
........Within the Hominin sub-family there are 7 genera in rough chronological order:  - Sahelanthropus - Orrorin - Ardipithecus - Australopithecus - Kenyanthropus - Paranthropus - Homo.
47. HOMO ERECTUS. To understand what we mean today by "Homo erectus", some history of paleoanthropological thought is needed.
......The first early human fossil found outside of Europe was the Trinil 2 fossil skullcap from the Solo River in Java.
......The fossil was placed in the species Pithecanthropus erectus by its discoverer Eugene Dubois.
......Almost 40 individuals have been recovered from Java to this day, roughly equivalent to the number of fossils found at the caves of Choukoutien in China.
......The Choukoutien fossils found were originally assigned the species name Sinanthropus pekinensis.
......It was not until the 1950's that Ernst Mayr proposed that all of the specimens from these two roughly contemporaneous locales, along with others localities from Europe and Africa,
......represented a single species, Homo erectus. Since the 1950's, however, the early African populations of what Mayr termed Homo erectus have once again been split into a separate species Homo ergaster.
......Homo erectus exhibits many features particular to the species, including a long skull shaped with thick cranial walls. The back of the skull is marked with a protruberance known as a transverse torus.
......Over the eyes is a large and prominent browridge, or supraorbital torus, which joins the rest of the frontal bone at a depression called the sulcus.
......Cranial capacities of Homo erectus average around 1000cc, which is far greater than earlier australopiths and even early Homo.
......The dentition of Homo erectus is nearly identical to modern humans, although the cheek teeth do remain larger, and the mandible is generally more robust.
......The species Homo erectus is thought to have diverged from Homo ergaster populations roughly 1.6 million years ago, and then spread into Asia.
......It was believed that Homo erectus disappeared as other populations of archaic Homo evolved roughly 400,000 years ago. Evidently, this is not the case.
......Recent studies into the complicated stratigraphy of the Java Homo erectus sites have revealed some surprising information.
......Researchers have dated the deposits thought to contain the fossils of H. erectus near the Solo River in Java to only 50,000 years ago.
......This would mean that at least one population of Homo erectus in Java was a contemporary of modern humans (Homo sapiens).
48. HOMO ERGASTER. (= "working man").  There is near unanimity among paleoanthropologists that Homo Ergaster, which appeared about 2 million years ago, is the anchor species for all subsequent humans.
......H. Ergaster presents a significant increase over earlier hominids in both stature and bone mass. Male ergasters stood close to 1.6 metres tall and weighed around 65 kgs, making them physically almost the equal of modern Africans.
......With that robust evolutionary shift, brain capacity increased to 850cc and the skull aquired a definite brow-ridge and an elongated "football" shape (most likely the result of expanded frontal and occipital lobes).
......Long legs and increased brain size made H. ergaster especially suited to long-range migration.
......The available fossil record suggests that H. ergaster ranged throughout eastern and northern Africa, and was the first human species to migrate out of Africa into middle and eastern Asia -- possibly even into southern Europe.
......H. Ergaster is also associated with the rise of the Acheulean tool industry around 1.4 million years ago. These are elegant implements, chipped with great care to functionally specific tool shapes,
......but also much more massive than the tools used by previous hominids (in some cases, nearly too massive for these earlier hominids to carry).
......This diversity of tools, in designs that remain unchanged across hundreds of thousands of years, implies specialization in hunting and in the processing of animal and plant products.
......In H. ergaster appears many of the social and behavioral traits characteristic of human hunter-gatherer populations of today -- knowing resource exploitation of very large geographical areas,
......long term stability in toolmaking procedures, complex plant and animal processing skills -- which all imply early forms of vocal or gestural language and a considerable role for culture and social learning.
49. HOMO GEORGICUS is another species, named in 2002, from fossils found in Dmanisi, Georgia, which seem intermediate between H. habilis and H. erectus.
......The fossils are about 1.8 million years old, consisting of three partial skulls and three lower jaws. Brain volumes vary from 600 to 680 cc. 
......A partial skeleton was also discovered in 2001 so more details should emerge (Vekua et al. 2002, Gabunia et al. 2002).
......H. georgicus may be the first hominin species to settle in Europe, some 800,000 years before H. erectus.
50..HOMO HABILIS, was a maker and user of crude stone tools and appeared up to 2.3 million years ago. Giant buffalo and other grazer animals replaced forest antelope fossils while H. habilis appeared.
......This suggested that grasslands had expanded and tree cover was less.
......It had small teeth, signs of a protruding nose, was lightly built, at 1.52 m tall and weighing 45 kg, and had a brain volume of about 650 cc. Males were much larger than females, similar to the sexual dimorphism of the Australopithecines.
......Animal bones found with habline tools show scratch marks suggesting that these creatures ate meat and also fruit, insects and plants. Tools and a jaw bone fragment dated at 1.9 million years old have been found in central China.
......Other remains of this species at archaeological sites come from Tanzania (Olduvai Gorge), Kenya (Koobi Fora) and South Africa (Sterkfontein) and show an early and wide distribution for Homo habilis.
......A recent discovery (2001) of a 1.75 million year old human skull from the strata below the ruins of the medieval town of Dmanisi in southern Georgia may extend the range of a close relative of H. habilis.
......This skull and other bones show some features similar to Homo habilis.
......This is the smallest (600cc), most primitive hominid skull ever discovered outside of Africa. It has large apelike canine teeth. 
51..HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS. Homo heidelbergensis is dated to have lived 400,000 to 100,000 years ago. "Heidelberg Man", "Mauer Jaw", Homo sapiens (archaic); (also Homo heidelbergensis).
......Discovered by gravel pit workers in 1907 near Heidelberg in Germany. Estimated age is between 400,000 and 700,000 years. This find consisted of a lower jaw with a receding chin and all its teeth.
......The jaw is extremely large and robust, like that of Homo erectus, but the teeth are at the small end of the erectus range. It is often classified as Homo heidelbergensis, but has also sometimes been considered to be a European Homo erectus.
52..HOMO RUDOLFENSIS. Slight morphological differences in larger fossils found at Koobi Fora, dated between 1.8 and 1.9 million years old, have led to the identification of another habline species, Homo rudolfensis with a brain volume of about 775 cc.
......There is a fossil mandible of this species up to 2.4 million years old (Johansen & Edgar, 1996). K. platyops has morphological similarities with Homo rudolfensis ( KNM ER 1470). Homo habilis is a smaller-brained creature with an archaic postcranium,
......and Homo rudolfensis as larger-brained with a more modern postcranium. 
53..HOMO SAHELANTHROPUS TCHADENSIS...Discovered by Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye in 2001 in Chad, in the southern Sahara desert. Estimated age is between 6 and 7 million years.
......It has many primitive ape-like features, such as the small brain-size, along with others, such as the brow ridges and small canine teeth, which are characteristic of later hominins.
54..HOMO SAPIENS NEANDERTHALENSIS. Neanderthals lived throughout Europe and Asia from approximately 150,000 years ago up until 30,000 years ago.
......There is evidence to show that they were contemporaneous with Anatomically Modern Humans for a period of time before becoming "extinct".
55..HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS..."Cro-Magnon Site", Homo sapiens sapiens (modern) discovered by workmen in 1868 at Cro-Magnon in France. Estimated age is 30,000 years.
......The site yielded skeletons of 5 buried individuals, along with stone tools, carved reindeer antlers, ivory pendants, and shells. The Cro-Magnons lived in Europe between 35,000 and 10,000 years ago.
......They are virtually identical to modern man, being tall and muscular and slightly more robust than most modern humans. They were skilled hunters, toolmakers and artists famous for the cave art at places such as Lascaux, Chauvet, and Altamira.
56. HUMERUS. The long bone of the upper fore-limb, being two matched bones (left and right). It has a long shaft, a proximal head and distally situated articulatory area.
57. HYOID. A single "U"-shaped bone situated between the Mandible and theLarynx at the base of the tongue and which supports the tongue. It comprises the Body plus the Greater and Lesser Horns. Below this, the Thyroid Cartilage sometimes may be found calcified.
58. ILIUM. One of a matched pair of bones (left and right) of the PELVIS, comprising the flat, semi-circular blade above the depression for the femoral head.
59. INCISOR. A cutting or fore-tooth.
60. INFERIOR NASAL CONCHA (TURBINATE). Two paired, scroll-shaped bones within the Nasal Cavity of the Skull.
61. INION. The external Occipital Protruberance.
62. INNOMINATE. The haunch or hip bone, formed in adults by the fusion of the ilium, ischium and pubis.
63. ISCHIUM. One of a matched pair of bones (left and right) of the PELVIS, situated below the ILIUM, it is narrow and thicker. Forms part of the margin for the large OBTURATOR FORAMEN.
64. LACRIMAL. Two paired, very thin. scale-like bones of the face of the Skull.
65. LEPTORRHINE. Narrow-nosed.
66. LUMBAR. Of or near the loins.
67. LUMBAR VERTEBRA. Have a very large Body with long Spinous and Transverse Processes.
68. LUPINE. Pertaining to the Wolf. (cf. Lupus).
69. MALACOLOGY. The study of molluscs.
70. MALAR. Pertaining to the cheek or cheek bone of the Skull. Two paired bones forming the Zygomatic or Cheek Bones.
71. MALLEOLUS. A bony protruberance on either side of the human ankle.
72. MANDIBLE. The lower jawbone of the Skull, comprising two symmetrical halves. Consists of a Body or Corpus Mandibulae and two Rami.
......The Body has a Median Symphysis and a pair of Mental Foramina. The Rami branch into the Condyles and Coronoid Processes.
73. MAXILLA. Two paired jawbones or more specifically the bones forming the posterior part of the upper jaw of the Skull, containing the Maxillary Sinus and the Alveolar Process.
74. MEGASEME.
75. MESO-CEPHALIC. Between Dolicho-cephalic and Brachy-cephalic.
76. MESOSEME.
77. METACARPAL BONES. (HAND). Comprising 5 bones in each hand. Except those of the thumb, they are all very similar.
78. METATARSAL BONES. The bones between the tarsals and toes, comprising of 5 in each foot. Except those of the big toe, they are all very similar.
79. METACONID. The mesiolingual cusp of a lower molar tooth.
80. MICRO-PALAEONTOLOGY. The sediments accumulated in aquatic environments (lakes, estuaries, seas and oceans) contain abundant microscopic remains issued from vegetal (pollen and spores), algal (dinoflagellate cysts, coccoliths, diatoms),
......zooplanktonic and benthic productivities. Their analysis is used to trace changes through time and to reconstruct past climatic and oceanic variations.
81. MOLAR. A grinding tooth or back-tooth.
82. NASAL. Two paired bones forming the bridge of the Nose on the face of the Skull.
83. NASION. The middle point of the naso-frontal suture.
84. OCCIPITAL. The bone at the back of the Cranium of the skull, containing the Nuchal Crests, the external Occipital Protruberance and Foramen Magnum.
85. OCCLUSAL.  Inside view of the open position of the mouth.
86. OPISTHION.  The rear concave or hollow of a vertebra.
87. OPISTHOGNATHOUS. Having retreating jaws.
88. ORBIT. The hollow in the skull in which the eyeball rests.
89. ORTHO-CEPHALIC. Straight-headed.
90. OSSIFER. A bone.
91. OSSIFEROUS. contains or containing bones.
92. OSSIFEROUS STALAGMITIC-BRECCIA. Stalagmitic-breccia (normally found in caves) containing osseous material.
93. OVICAPRID. Of uncertain taphologic origin, being either of Sheep (Ovine) or of Goat (Caprine).
94. PALAEO-CONCHOLOGY. The science of the study of the fossil remains of the Invertebrate shelled animals, such as molluscs and snails.
95. PALAEO-ICTHYOLOGY. The science of the Study of Fossil Fish.
96. PALAEO-OSTEOLOGY. The science of the Study of Fossil Bones and includes the associated disciplines of Osteo-pathology, Osteo-morphology and Osteo-morphometry.
97. PALATE. The roof of the mouth, consisting of the hard palate in front and the soft palate behind.
98. PALATINE. Two paired bones forming the back part of the Palate.
99. PALYNOLOGY. The science of the study of those entities, living or fossilized, that are assumed to be spores or pollen grains of vascular plants.
100. PANINAE (Chimpanzees). A Sub-family of Hominids pertaining only to the chimpanzee lineage of evolutionary history.
101. PARIETAL. A bone, forming with its fellow part of the sides and top of the skull, between the frontal and the occipital. They contain the Parietal Foramen and the Temporal Lines continued from the Frontal.
102. PATELLA. The knee bone or knee cap. A matched pair (left and right) of bones roughly heart-shaped and appearing as a thickened disc.
103. PELVIS or OSS INNOMINATA. A matched pair of bone assemblies (left and right), each comprising an ILIUM, ISCHIUM, PUBIS and an ACETABULUM.
104. PHALANGES. (FINGERS). Comprising 14 bones in each hand, there are 2 in the thumb and 3 in each finger.
105. PHALANGES. (TOES). Comprising 14 bones in each foot and having a similar arrangement to those in the fingers.
106. PLATY-CEPHALIC. Having the vault of the skull flattened; flat-headed.
107. PLATYRRHINE.  Broad-nosed.
108. POSTERIOR. Coming after; hinder; on the side next the axis.
109. PREMOLAR.  A tooth in front of the true Molar teeth, ie. between the Canine and Molars, called Molar or Milk-molar in the Milk Dentition.
110. PROGNATHISM. Forward projecting, normally in the jaw.
111. PROXIMAL. At the near, inner or attached end.
112. PTERION. In craniometry, the suture where the frontal, squamosal and parietal bones meet the wing of the sphenoid.
113. PUBIS. One of a matched pair of bones (left and right) of the PELVIS, forming the rest of the OBTURATOR FORAMEN margin, it is flattened and less massive than the ISCHIUM.
114. RADIUS. The outer bone of the lower fore-arm or fore-limb, having an upper head that is flat and circular and a much larger distal end.
115. RAMUS. The mandible or its ascending part.
116. RIB. The bones that curve round and forward from the vertebrae or back-bones. In the Human skeleton, there are 7 pairs of True Ribs connected by their own Cartilage with the Breast Bone or Sternum.
.......There are also 5 pairs of False Ribs, of which the 8th, 9th and 10th pairs are connected with the Cartilage above it and the 11th and 12th pairs are floating, being fixed at only one end.
117. SACRAL VERTEBRA. Commonly united to form the Sacrum.
118. SACRUM.  The triangular bone composed of fused vertebrae wedged between the two innominate bones, so as to form the "keystone" of the pelvic arch or girdle.
119. SAGITTAL SUTURE. That between the two parietal bones of the skull.
120. SCAPULA. (or SHOULDER BLADE). One of the two matched pairs of bones of the shoulder girdle, [also OMOPLATE], consisting of a triangular BODY,
........with the lateral angle displaying the GLENOID CAVITY and also possessing a CORACOID PROCESS and SPINE.
121. SKULL

The image above indicates the more obvious visible differences between the male and female
skull of the hominin Homo sapiens.
122. SPHENOID. A wedge-shaped bone at the base of the Skull, with Greater and Lesser Wings and including the Sella Turcica, which houses the Pituitary Gland.
123. SQUAMOSAL. A paired membrane bone of the vertebrate Skull; the Squamose portion of the Temporal Bone.
124. STALAGMITIC BRECCIA. A matrix of breccia (usually limestone rubble or similar) fused weakly or strongly with stalagmite derived from lime-rich cave water percolating through the breccia and sealing it into a solid mass.
125. STERNUM. (or Breast Bone). In the Human skeleton, this consists of three parts; the MANUBRIUM, an irregularlt quadrilateral in shape; the BODY, long and blade-like and displaying a series of lateral facets for the COSTAL (RIB) CARTILAGES;
........the XIPHOID PROCESS, variable in shape and beginning as CARTILAGE it usually becomes incompletely ossified in the adult Human.
126. SUPERCILLIARY RIDGE.  The eyebrow.
127. SUPRAORBITAL RIDGE.
128. SUTURAL (WORMIAN) BONES. From one to twenty in number bones along the Cranial Sutures.
129. SUTURE. A seam or junction at the meeting of bones, often less pronounced in adults or mature-growth bones.
130. SYMPHYSIS. The place of union or fusion of bones, or of their joining by cartilage or ligament.
131. TARSAL BONES. (ANKLE). The ankle bones to which the rest of the leg is articulated. Comprising 7 bones in each limb or foot. Having an irregular cuboidal form, they comprise the CALCANEUS, TALUS, CUBOID, NAVICULAR and 3 cuneiform bones.
132. TEMPORAL. Of or at the temple of the skull; each Temporal Bone has Squamous, Mastoid, Petrous and Tympanic parts.
133. THORACIC VERTEBRA.
134. TIBIA. The shin bone. One of the two matched pairs (left and right) of bones the lower leg. The large upper extremity articulates with the FEMUR.
135. TROCHLEA. A small opening or foramen, through which a tendon passes.
136. TUBERCULAR. Nodular; having tubercles.
137. ULNA. The inner and larger of the two bones of the lower fore-arm or fore-limb and having a large proximal head and slender shaft.
138. ULNARE. The bone of the carpus opposite the ulna.
139. URSINE. Pertaining to the Bear. (cf. Ursus).
140. VERTEBRA. The individual articulated bones of the spinal column or back bone.
141. VERTEBRAL CANAL. The opening in the vertebrae through which the spinal chord passes.
142. VERTEBRAL COLUMN. In the Human Skeleton, from the top downwards, this consists of 7 x Cervical or neck Vertebrae; 12 Dorsal or Thoracic Vertebrae; 5 x Lumbar Vertebrae; 5 x Sacral Vertebrae and 4 or 5 Coccygeal Vertebrae.
143. VERTEBRATE PALAEONTOLOGY. The multi-disciplinary science of the study of the fossil remains and history of animals with back-bones (vertebrates).
........This science incudes the associated sciences of Thanatology (the Study of the Causes of Death and Direct consequences), Biostratinomy (The Study of the Mode of Burial) and Necrology (The Study of the Alteration Processes of dead bodies before either rock diagenesis or fossilization).
144. VOMER. A bone that separates the left and right Nasal areas of the Skull.
145. VULPINE. Pertaining to the Fox. (cf..Vulpes).
146. WORMIAN (SUTURAL) BONES. From one to twenty in number bones along the Cranial Sutures.
147. ZYGOMA. The arch formed by the malar bone and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone of the skull.

end.

[more to follow if found to be necessary]
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