The Society's Homepages for the
CATTEDOWN BONE CAVES,
Cattedown, Plymouth, Devon, England, U.K.
The Devon Karst Research Society.
Section  2.0.    THE CAVE EXCAVATIONS OF R.N. WORTH AND R. BURNARD, 1886-1887 AT "WORTH'S CATTEDOWN BONE CAVE".

Section 2. Link Page for
ARCHIVE LOCATIONAL IMAGES OF WORTH'S CATTEDOWN BONE CAVE AND OF THE CATTEDOWN MIDDLE QUARRY.

Text Revised 17 March 2006.

Images 2.1., 2.2. and 2.3. provided below have been copied in electronic form and supplied by the Torquay Museum, from Worth's original photographic glass plates.
The Society wishes to express its gratitude to the Staff of the Torquay Museum for digitally processing and supplying those images below which specifically contain 
the Copyright mark of the Torquay Museum.

Section 2.0. Link Page Contents :

Section LP1...The Torquay Museum Photographic Archive, (opposite);
Section LP2...R.N. Worth's Contemporary Images of the Cattedown Bone Cave;
Section LP3...Other Archive Locational Images of the Cattedown Middle Quarry.

Click on the underlined Links above to move down to the Sections quickly.

LP1.  THE TORQUAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY AND THE TORQUAY MUSEUM PHOTOGRAPHIC ARCHIVE SOURCE.
R.N. Worth's 9 photographic glass plates relating to the Cattedown Cave discovery in 1886-1887 are currently curated as part of the R. HANSFORD WORTH BEQUEST held by the Torquay Museum in their premises at Babbacombe Road, Torquay, South Devon. Using the Torquay Museum Accession Numbers for each item, these important photographic glass plates contain the following information:-

.....Plate No. 1099.  [shown below on this Webpage and in the main page of Section 2.], contains a view of "Worth's Cattedown Bone Cave", looking in at the North Chamber;
.....Plate No. 1100.  [shown below on this Webpage], contains a view of the North Chamber of "Worth's Cattedown Bone Cave" in the context of the Quarry surroundings, (with lens distortion);
.....Plate No. 1101.  [shown below on this Webpage], contains a detailed view of the stalagmitic-breccia on the West Wall of the North Chamber;
.....Plate No. 1102.  [shown in the main page of Section 2.], contains a view of Hominin Mandibles from "Worth's Cattedown Bone Cave";
.....Plate No. 1103.  [shown in the main page of Section 2.], contains a view of Hominin Mandibles from "Worth's Cattedown Bone Cave";
.....Plate No. 1104.  [shown in the main page of Section 2.], contains a view of Hominin Skulls from "Worth's Cattedown Bone Cave";
.....Plate No. 1105.  [shown in the main page of Section 2.], contains a view of Hominin Skulls from "Worth's Cattedown Bone Cave";
.....Plate No. 1106.  [shown in the main page of Section 2.], contains a view of a Hominin Skull from "Worth's Cattedown Bone Cave";
.....Plate No. 1107.  [shown in the main page of Section 2.], contains a view of a Hominin Skull from "Worth's Cattedown Bone Cave";

The unique original photographs were recorded by R N Worth's photographer Mr David Roy and as such they form the only photographic record of this spectacular and scientifically important discovery. The 3½ inch x 3½ inch photographic glass plates are now 118 years old but are in remarkably good condition considering their age. All 9 of the images on the photographic glass plates are displayed in one or other of the Webpages of Section 2.
The originals can be viewed only by prior arrangement with the Torquay Museum. Further details about the Torquay Museum can be found in their Website address :-..http://www.torquaymuseum.org

The Society also holds high-resolution scanned copies of the originals in its Archives for research purposes. Photocopies of the relevant Torquay Natural History Society Museum*.Accession Cards are also kept by the Society in its Cattedown Archive File.
[.*  as of 2004, this is now the Torquay Museum Society.]

LP2.1.  R.N. WORTH'S MAIN LOCATIONAL IMAGE OF THE CATTEDOWN BONE CAVE,
CATTEDOWN MIDDLE QUARRY :
[Archive Note :  The Cattedown Quarry has also been known in the past as Cattedown Middle Quarry, being situated between the more westerly Deadman's Bay Quarries and the more easterly Prince Rock Quarry.]
The existence of the cave was first revealed when the pre-1886 quarry floor level was being lowered in the Autumn of 1886. However, it was then dramatically broken into on its eastern side at the south end of the North Chamber in April 1887, soon after which the Image 2.1. below was recorded.
A visual analysis of this photograph reveals the neo-vertical fissure of Worth's Cattedown Bone Cave - North Chamber, located in the lower-left part of the View. Worth describes this as being aligned north-south. Clearly seen is the cave's undercut East Wall on the right side of the fissure and the opposing West Wall on the left side of the fissure. The fissure comes up to the surface at the pre-1886 quarry floor level, which in the photograph runs horizontally right across the middle of the View from left to right. This fissure was obviously not recognized as being present in the old quarry floor, probably being obscured by quarry debris. The cave passage would have been naturally plugged with stalagmitic-breccia, further obscuring its presence. At and above this pre-1886 quarry floor are other features which act as important positioning locators for the cave.
We shall now move on to look in greater detail at these features and their positions in the quarry. These important cave positioning locators should also be seen in a wider context by comparison of the image above with Image 3.1. below.

1...The most obvious background feature is the building, which was a house constructed on the old pre-1886 quarry floor level by Benjamin Sparrow Snr. The quarry house has distinctive chimney tops.
2...Another obvious background feature is the lower part of a substantial wall built into the quarry face and seen in the top-centre of the view. It has a distinct shape and a prominent corner.
3...The two obvious features which are missing are the Cattedown Railway Tunnel and the railway cutting approach to its west portal, insofar as they had not yet been created.
The house shown above and in Image 3.1. below eventually had to be demolished to allow for the construction of the railway cutting bringing the railway out from the west portal of the Cattedown Tunnel. We have yet to determine the exact year this was undertaken.
4...The geological feature represented by the slope and direction of the limestone bedding in the old quarry face behind the house and in the new lower quarry face in the foreground are pertinent to the site interpretation.

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LP2.  R.N. WORTH'S CONTEMPORARY IMAGES OF THE CATTEDOWN BONE CAVE
PHOTOGRAPHED FOR Mr. R N WORTH BY Mr. DAVID ROY, 1886-1887.
Explanation and visual analysis of the views to establish the exact location of the Cattedown Bone Cave with a comparative analysis of later images.


IMAGE 2.1....R.N. Worth's Glass Photographic Plate No. 1100., with lens distortion on the 4 corners. (Reproduced by kind permission of the Torquay Museum.)
(Photo :  Mr David Roy for R.N. Worth, 1887.)

LP2.2.  R.N. WORTH'S MAIN IMAGE OF THE PARTLY EXCAVATED CATTEDOWN BONE CAVE
(NORTH CHAMBER) :
A visual analysis of Image 2.2. opposite (left-side image) shows a great deal of stalagmite and stalagmitic-breccia hanging on the West Wall of the North Chamber of "Worth's Cattedown Bone Cave". The view is taken at the new, lower quarry floor level, looking in from where the main breach was made along the East Wall at the south end of the North Chamber.
The prominent bedding plane in the extreme right of the view sloping down towards the photographer is situated at the north end of the breach where it broke into the East Wall. This latter feature survives and is still visible and recognisable today.
The West Wall taking up the bulk of the view facing the camera, is now completely destroyed down to the modern quarry-floor level, below which it remains extant.

LP2.3.  R.N. WORTH'S DETAILED IMAGE OF THE OSSIFEROUS STALAGMITIC BRECCIA IN THE CATTEDOWN BONE CAVE (NORTH CHAMBER) :
A visual analysis of Image 2.3. opposite (right side image) shows a more detailed view of one area of hanging stalagmitic breccia low down on the West Wall of the North Chamber.
It has been suggested that the top of a cranium can be seen in the left corner of the dark corner in the right of the view.

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IMAGE 2.2. (above-left)....R.N. Worth's Glass Photographic Plate No. 1099. (Reproduced by kind permission of the Torquay Museum.)
IMAGE 2.3. (above-right)....R.N. Worth's Glass Photographic Plate No. 1101. (Reproduced by kind permission of the Torquay Museum.)
(Photos :  Mr David Roy for R.N. Worth, 1887.)
LP3.1.   POST 1887 IMAGES OF THE CATTEDOWN MIDDLE QUARRY :
The Image 3.1. opposite is the only one so far found which indicates in a wider context some of the salient features in the background of Worth's Image 2.1. above.

Image 3.1. ca. 1888.
1...The quarry house is specifically in view together with its characteristic chimneys. Worth's photograph in Image 2.1. above clearly show part of the south-side elevation of this house. In the image opposite, the quarry house is clearly constructed on the higher, pre-1886 quarry floor.
2...The chimney stack and its masonry pedestal and the massive foundations below with their characteristic profile are clearly seen.
3...Note the small quarry face to the right of and below the house at the rear of the Chemical Works. Was this the quarry face as left by Burnard & Alger after the site was levelled, or is this the north side of the railway cutting? We think it is the former.
4...Note also the Sulphuric Acid Works of Burnard, Lack & Alger's Chemical Works industrial complex. This building in which this abhorrent process was undertaken is located below and to the right of the base of the chimney stack. It is almost at the same level as the quarry house insofar as they were both built on the pre-1887 quarry floor level. The Sulphuric Acid Works has a large flue pipe coming out of its left side and is then run up the quarry face into the south-facing side of the chimney-stack support pedestal. Slightly above the Sulphuric Acid building is another dark diagonal feature ascending to the top of the old quarry face. This was an access walkway cut into the quarry face with a handrail, leading from the building up to a water tank or reservoir at the top. The Sulphuric Acid Plant would have required large volumes of fresh water for manufacturing the chemical.
The clearly visible water reservoir feature has long disappeared but the walkway and its rusting handrail still survive. The effects of the corrosive chemical can be seen today on the surviving quarry face.

Image 3.2. ca. 1890.
In Image 3.2. opposite, we see the four essential elements of the Chimney stack; the quarry house; the railway cutting and the railway tunnel all in place in this idealised, fanciful view of the Cattedown Middle Quarry site, forming an illustration in an advertisement for the Burnard & Alger Chemical Works.

Image 3.3. 1905.
In Image 3.3. opposite, some of the salient locational features of the Cattedown Middle Quarry that help us to locate Worth's Cattedown Bone Cave, are just about visible.
The old Quarry House can clearly be seen to the left of the chimney stack on the house in the right-side foreground, which also coincidentally partly obscures the chimney stack of Burnard, Lack & Alger's Sulphuric Acid Works.
The very eastern end of Sparrow's Carpenter Rock Quarry can be seen in the extreme left of the view.
Immediately to the right of this at the point where the road at the top of this quarry face descends to the level of the quayside, there appears to be a bridge structure conveying the road over the Cattewater Railway Branch Line to the left of the light-coloured Public House facing the Cattewater Quayside.

Image 3.4. ca. 1945.
In Image 3.4. immediately below, we see that the four essential elements of the original scenario are now either missing or obscured. We do not yet know when the Brick Chimney Stack beside the Higher Cattedown Road above the quarry was demolished. The image above indicates the limestone masonry pedestal on which the chimney was built, still surviving but with an Ordnance Survey Triangulation Pillar on its top. This was put in place in June 1945, so the view clearly post-dates the chimney-demolition event. Most of the Burnard & Alger Chemical Works infrastructure has gone but the Railway infrastructure survives. The Cattedown Reindeer Rift Cave is immediately behind the inconveniently-placed crane jib in the extreme centre-right of the view, on the bright quarry face. The top part of this rift cave can just be discerned.


IMAGE 3.4....A post-World War 2. view of the Cattedown Quarry, Cattedown Wharves and Fison's Fertilizer Works,
with the Cattedown Goods Railway Station in the centre.
(Photo :  unknown - circa 1960.)

Image 3.5. January 1965.
In the composite Image 3.5. opposite is a view of the south-east part of the Cattedown Middle Quarry taken from the balcony surrounding the Ordnance Survey Triangulation Pillar beside the Higher Cattedown Road and overlooking the site. The square corner of land protruding out into the oil terminal floor with the railway sidings at its foot, is the original foundation of the building containing Burnard, Lack and Alger's Sulphuric Acid Works in their original 19th Century Chemical Factory. The factory used the "Lead Chamber Process" and must have given rise to the most appalling pollution in the area. The main Sulphuric Acid building is featured in Image 3.1. above. 
This very interesting photographic record reveals the layout of the oil industry infrastructure on the ground at the time, together with an indication of the prevailing ground conditions. This will greatly assist the Society when the time comes to uncover this level from beneath the modern oil terminal floor. We believe that the two-branched railway siding is also extant beneath the concrete of the modern oil terminal floor.
The photograph also indicates widespread hydrocarbon contamination of the oil terminal's old lower floor area.


IMAGE 3.6....Another view of the oil terminal infrastructure in the S.E. corner of the Middle Quarry.
(Photo :  unknown - January 1965.)

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LP3.  OTHER ARCHIVE LOCATIONAL IMAGES OF THE CATTEDOWN MIDDLE QUARRY.

IMAGE 3.1....The Cattedown Quarry, Cattedown Wharves and Burnard Lack & Alger's Chemical Works, as viewed from Turnchapel on the opposite bank of the Cattewater.
(Photo :  unknown photographer - circa 1888.)


IMAGE 3.2....An artist's idealised drawing of the Cattedown Middle Quarry, Cattedown Wharves and Burnard & Alger's Fertilizer and Acid Works,
as part of an advertisement for the Company in the Commercial Directory of the 1890's.
(Artist :  unknown - circa 1890 onwards.)

IMAGE 3.3....The Cattedown Quarry, Cattedown Wharves and Burnard & Alger's Chemical Works, as viewed from Turnchapel on the opposite bank of the Cattewater.
(Photo :  unknown photographer - 1905.)

IMAGE 3.5....A view of the S.E. corner of the Cattedown Middle Quarry with the back of the Cattedown Wharves visible behind the Shell Mex & B.P. Oil Terminal infrastructure.
(Photo :  unknown - January 1965.)

Image 3.7.  1980.
In Image 3.7. opposite, we are shown almost a complete panorama of the east-west width of the Cattedown Karst Peninsula where it juts out into the Cattewater. The silos on the far western side (left) are situated on the Victoria Wharves fronting Sparrow's Carpenter Rock Quarry, part of the Catttedown West Quarries. The red-coloured hull of the ship in the middle is moored at the Cattedown Wharves fronting the Cattedown Middle Quarry. The red brick buildings of the redundant Plymouth "B" Power Station, seen here in the right of the view, were situated in the large Cattedown East Quarry or Prince Rock Quarry. The Power Generating Station has since been demolished to make way for a water and sewage treatment works.

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IMAGE 3.7....A photo-montage view of the Cattedown Quarries and Cattedown Wharves, with an extensive cliff-stabilization project underway in the No. 2. Site of the Shell UK Oil Terminal, (right).
(Photo :  unknown for Rendel. Palmer & Tritton, Consulting Engineers - 13 February 1980. Size: 714kB.)
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