UNESCO 
(MAB) World Heritage Site
1995
 

AGGTELEKI NEMZETI PARK

SLOVENSKÝ KRAS
CHRÁNENÁ KRAJINNÁ OBLASŤ
 

The Devon Karst Research Society. ACTIVITIES (Europe).

THE PROJECTS
Main Project No. 4.  Hungary & Slovakia.


The Gömör-Torna Karst Region
Slovakia - Hungary.

THE AGGTELEK KARST, Hungary  -  AZ AGGTELEKI KARSZT, Magyarország.

Section 2.0.
THE HUNGARIAN VITUKI KARST HYDROLOGICAL RESEARCH AND MONITORING PROGRAMME.
[ VITUKI  Vízgazdálkodási Tudományos Kutatóközpont. / "Research Centre for Water Resources Development" of the Institute of Hydrology.]

2.4.  COMPARISON OF KARST SPRING HYDROMETRIC INFRASTRUCTURE, 1986 to 2002.
(Interim Version Updated 27 April 2006.)
All photographic images on this page were recorded by B. Lewarne, unless otherwise stated.

Webpage Contents :
2.4.1...Baradla-bg, Rövid-alsó-barlang karsztforrás, Jósvafõ  /  Baradla Cave, Short Lower Cave Resurgence Spring, Jósvafõ :
2.4.2...Baradla-bg, Hosszu-alsó-barlang karsztforrás, Jósvafõ  /  Baradla Cave, Long Lower Cave Resurgence Spring, Jósvafõ :
2.4.3...Béke-bg, Komlós karsztforrás, Jósvafõ  /  Peace Cave, Komlós Resurgence Spring, Jósvafõ :
2.4.4...Kossuth-bg, Jósvafõ  /  Kossuth Cave, near Jósvafõ :
2.4.5...Nagy-Tohonya karsztforrás, Tohonya völgy, Jósvafõ  /  Large Tohonya Karst Resurgence Spring, near Jósvafõ :
2.4.6...Ősi karsztforrás, Tohonya völgy, Jósvafõ  / 
2.4.7...Kis-Tohonya karsztforrás, Tohonya völgy, Jósvafõ  /  Small Tohonya Karst Resurgence Spring, near Jósvafõ :
2.4.8...Vecsem karsztforrás, Bódvaszilas  /  Vecsem Karst Exsurgence Spring, Bódvaszilas :
2.4.9...Barlankutató-karsztforrás, Bódvaszilas  /  Cave-research Karst Exsurgence Spring, Bódvaszilas :

Click on the underlined Links.above to move down to the Sections quickly..


2.4.1.  BARADLA BARLANG, 
RÖVID ALSÓ-BARLANG, (KIJÁRAT), Jósvafõ.
[Locational-context Images.
Click on image to see full size.]


The portal to the exit tunnel of the Baradla
"Short Lower Cave", outside and below
which is a small tufa waterfall. Some of the
hydrometric canal structures can be seen.
The resurgence pool for the Baradla
"Long Lower Cave" is out of view
to the right of the tunnel. (15 Aug 2002.)


The view, looking downstream, indicates two
canals. The right canal takes the karst water from the
"Short Lower Cave" Resurgence. The one on the
left takes that from the "Long Lower Cave" Resurgence.
(15 Aug 2002.)

2.4.1.  BARADLA BARLANG, RÖVID-ALSÓ-BARLANG (JÓSVA) KARSZTFORRÁS, Jósvafõ  / 
Baradla Cave, Short Lower Cave (Jósva) Resurgence Spring, Jósvafõ :

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  048° 29' 00'' N.  020° 32' 32'' E.
- Elevation :  218m. (715ft.) above Baltic Sea Level.
This B-Type karst spring (cave resurgence) is located to the east of the village of Jósvafõ, at the north end of the Tengerszem-tó. It is accessed via a gated portal to an artificial tunnel which eventually leads into the natural cave system beyond. The tunnel was constructed through the bedrock-collapse zone and boulder ruckle originally obscuring the cave mouth.


 
 
 
 
 
 

Image 2.4.1-1. (left),..BARADLA BARLANG, RÖVID ALSÓ-BARLANG, (KIJÁRAT), Jósvafõ and Hydrometric Infrastructure, Easter 1989.
Here, the very low flow is seen pouring through the lower part of the combination weir plate. 
We have never seen the Metra 501 Recording Hydrograph actually in position here.
(Photo :  R.P. Smith.)

Hydrological Information :
- Catchment Area :  34.4 km².
This is the principal resurgence spring for the Upper Conduit containing the underground course of the River Styx in the Baradla-Domica Cave System.

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
- Easter 1989 - This artificial entrance / exit-tunnel contained a Combination Thin Plate Weir, to accurately cope with both the very high as well as the very low flows associated with a typical B-Type (Allogenic) karst spring. The main upper part of the Weir Plate contains a 90º Triangular V-Notch at the bottom of which is a Rectangular Notch. The Combination Weir Plate is in good operational condition, though in need of some maintenance. When photographed in 1989, it had already been out of use for many years.
 
 

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2.4.2. BARADLA HOSSZU ALSÓ-BARLANG, Jósvafõ.
[Locational-context Images.
Click on image to see full size.]


The location of the artificial tunnel entrance into the
resurgence zone of the Baradla "Long Lower Cave"


A closer view of the tunnel's locked entrance-gate.
 

2.4.2.  BARADLA HOSSZU-ALSÓ-BARLANG KARSZTFORRÁS, Jósvafõ  /  Baradla Long Lower Cave Resurgence, Jósvafõ :
[In preparation.]

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  [unknown]
- Elevation :  [unknown]
This enigmatic karst spring is located to the east of the village of Jósvafõ, at the north end of the Tengerszem-tó, beside the separate cave resurgence spring for the Upper Conduit of the Baradla-Domica Cave System. It should be said that there is some mixing of the latter with the former in the resurgence-zone.

Hydrological Information :
This is the principal resurgence spring for the Deep Conduit of the Baradla-Domica Cave System, which is thought to be partly supplied by the Bába-Lyuk Víznyelő, Aggtelek and others further afield near Trizs. It has also been postulated that the suspended temporary lake of Fekete tó may also be situated above a possible feeder to the Baradla's Deep Conduit. 
[more to follow.]

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
The resurgence pool is adjacent to the entrance tunnel of the Baradla barlang, Short Lower Cave (Jósva) Resurgence Spring. When considering the great importance of this particular karst spring, it may surprise you to know that there has never been any Hydrometric Installation here. The flow is measured by difference in various downstream outflow canals before the flow meets with the output from the Upper Conduit of the Baradla-Domica Cave System from the Short Lower Cave Resurgence.

For a view of the Plan (Alaprajz) and Section of the surveyed sections of this section of the Baradla barlang, please click on the Links below :

Click here to view a 
Longitudinal Section Map / Szelvényrajz
of BARADLA HOSSZU ALSÓ-BARLANG KARSZTFORRÁS, Jósvafõ. (45kB.)
[Készült : KTM TVH Barlangtani Osztályán / Prepared to KTM TVH Speleological Standard
in July 1998. by SZABÓ Zoltan and NYERGES Attila.]

It should be noted that some of the early work to open an access into the spring cave was undertaken by Szenthe István, who was occasionally privately funded in this work by the late Prof. Dr. Jakucs László.

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2.4.3. KOMLÓS KARSZTFORRÁS, Jósvafõ.
[Locational-context Images.
Click on image to see full size.]


A longitudinal view of the Hydrometric
Infrastructure, located in karst woodland.
(18 August 2002.)

2.4.3.  BÉKE-BARLANG, KOMLÓS KARSZTFORRÁS, Jósvafõ  /  Peace Cave, Komlós Karst Resurgence Spring, Jósvafõ :

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  048° 28' 52'' N.  020° 32' 42'' E.
- Elevation :  217m. (712ft.) above Baltic Sea Level.

Hydrological Information :
- Catchment Area :  2.5 km².
This karst spring is the principal outlet for the Béke-barlang (Peace Cave) system.


Image 2.4.3-1.  KOMLÓS KARSZTFORRÁS and Hydrometric Infrastructure, Jósvafõ , 18 August 2002.
indicating the upstream containment and weir-approach canals, hydrograph house and the 28º 4' Triangular V-Notch Thin Plate Weir, all in fully active, operational condition, but in dire need of repair and maintenance. Viewed from the upstream side.


Images 2.4.3-2. (left).and 2.4.3-3. (right), KOMLÓS KARSZTFORRÁS and Hydrometric Infrastructure, Jósvafõ, 18 August 2002.
Image 2.4.3-2. (left)A closer view of the upstream side of the 28º 4' Triangular V-Notch Weir Plate under very low-flow conditions.
Image 2.4.3-3.(right) :  A view of the downstream side of the 28º 4' Triangular V-Notch Weir Plate under the same conditions.


Image 2.4.3-4. (above-left)...KOMLÓS KARSZTFORRÁS and Hydrometric Infrastructure, Jósvafõ, 18 August 2002.
A closer view of the downstream side of the 28º 4' Triangular V-Notch Weir Plate, 18 August 2002,, showing that there is much in the way of maintenance required.
Image 2.4.3-5. (above-right)...KOMLÓS KARSZTFORRÁS and Hydrometric Infrastructure, Jósvafõ, 18 August 2002.
The Nappe geometry, as viewed from above, formed by the 28º 4' Triangular V-Notch Weir Plate.

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
- 18 August 2002 - The Infrastructure was in full operational condition and consisting of one Metra 501 Recording Hydrograph (located in the secure hydrograph house); one 28º 4' Triangular V-Notch Thin Plate Weir; one integral Weir-approach / Infrastructure containment canal and a short section of downstream canal. There is an additional weir further downstream.
All the hydrometric infrastructure is now in dire need of repair or serious maintenance. The upstream weir-approach canal badly needs clearing of rapidly encroaching debris and thoroughly requires cleaning. The Weir Plate itself very badly needs cleaning and other maintenance. The containment walls upstream of and integral with the weir-approach canal walls need clearing.

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2.4.4. KOSSUTH BARLANG, Jósvafõ.
[Subsidiary Images]
2.4.4.  KOSSUTH BARLANG, Jósvafõ  /  Kossuth Cave, near Jósvafõ :
[In preparation.]

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  [unknown]
- Elevation :  [unknown]

Hydrological Information :
- Catchment Area :  [unknown]

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
This gated cave entrance is located uptream of the nearby Nagy-Tohonya Karsztforrás. There is no direct hydrometric infrastructure associated with this cave. Please refer to Section 2.4.5. below, where details are given of the connected output of the Kossuth Barlang.


Image 2.4.4-1..(above-left)...and..Image 2.4.4-2. (above-right), KOSSUTH BARLANG, near Jósvafõ,18 August 2002.

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2.4.5. NAGY-TOHONYA KARSZTFORRÁS, Jósvafõ.
[Locational-context Images.
Click on image to see full size.]

2.4.5.  NAGY-TOHONYA KARSZTFORRÁS, Tohonya völgy, Jósvafõ  /  Large Tohonya Karst Resurgence Spring, near Jósvafõ :

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  048° 29' 15'' N.  020° 33' 01'' E.
- Elevation :  218m. (715ft.) above Baltic Sea Level.
This is located in the valley to the north of Jósvafõ leading to Tohonya-bérc, just beyond the point where the valley opens out. It is located just south of the entrance tunnel to Kossuth-barlang.

Hydrological Information :
- Catchment Area :  24.4 km².
This water mainly flows from the nearby Kossuth-barlang but originates from the Kurislán Swallow-hole and the Gergéslápa Swallow-hole.


Image 2.4.5-1...NAGY-TOHONYA KARSZTFORRÁS and Hydrometric Infrastructure, near Jósvafõ,18 August 2002.
with its complex tandem-weir installation in full, active operational condition.


Image 2.4.5-2..(above-left)...NAGY-TOHONYA KARSZTFORRÁS and Hydrometric Infrastructure, near Jósvafõ,18 August 2002.
This is a longer view looking at the downstream side of the installation and revealing other old infrastructure, about which we have no information.
Image 2.4.5-3. (above-right)...NAGY-TOHONYA KARSZTFORRÁS and Hydrometric Infrastructure, near Jósvafõ,18 August 2002.
This view shows the upstream side of the weir-complex.


Image 2.4.5-4. and Image 2.4.5-5. (above),.NAGY-TOHONYA.KARSZTFORRÁS and Hydrometric Infrastructure, near Jósvafõ,18 August 2002.
Image 2.4.5-4. (left),  shows the contraction contours in the Nappe geometry as viewed from above and behind, on the upstream side of the weir-complex.
Image 2.4.5-5. (right),  shows a side view of the Nappe geometry as viewed from the downstream side of the weir-complex. 
Note how the Nappe is correctly developed and as a result, is fully ventilated on its underside. Its appearance would be smoother-looking if the crest of the V-Notch was correctly maintained.


Image 2.4.5-6. and Image 2.4.5-7.  NAGY-TOHONYA.KARSZTFORRÁS and Hydrometric Infrastructure, near Jósvafõ,18 August 2002.
Image 2.4.5-6.(left),  shows the contraction contours in the Nappe geometry as viewed from above on one side, on the downstream side of the weir-complex.
Image 2.4.5-7.(right),  shows a front-on view of the Nappe, as seen from the downstream side of the V-Notch Thin Plate Weir.


Image 2.4.5-8.  NAGY-TOHONYAKARSZTFORRÁS and Hydrometric Infrastructure, near Jósvafõ,18 August 2002.
This amazing view shows the contraction contours and general Nappe geometry as viewed from above and behind the
53º 8' Triangular V-Notch Thin Plate Weir, on the upstream side of the weir-complex.
(Photo :  L. Satterley.)

Click on the Link below to view the Video MPEG1.
Image 2.4.3-9.  NAGY-TOHONYA KARSZTFORRÁS .and Hydrometric Infrastructure, near Jósvafõ,.18 August 2002.
Nappe-formation and.Nappe-geometry as viewed from in front of the 53º 8' Triangular V-Notch Thin Plate Weir


Image 2.4.5-9..(above-left)...NAGY-TOHONYA.KARSZTFORRÁS and Hydrometric Infrastructure, near Jósvafõ,18 August 2002.
Image 2.4.5-10..(above-right)...NAGY-TOHONYA.KARSZTFORRÁS and Hydrometric Infrastructure, near Jósvafõ,18 August 2002.

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
This location has one of the more complex hydrographic installations in the Aggtelek Karst. For lower rates of water flow, a 53º 8' Triangular V-Notch Thin Plate Weir installation copes with flows of water creating a head of water h between 0.06m. -
0.63 m. above the vertex.
For the higher rates of flow, the tandem installation of the Truncated V-notch Thin Plate Weir takes over. Each Weir Plate has its own Metra 501 Recording Hydrograph located in the central Hydrograph House, which is kept securely locked.
There is a concrete water-channelling and containment structure on the upstream side.
- 18 August 2002All the original infrastructure remains in place and appears to be fully operational. The crests of the Weir Plates need attention.

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2.4.6. ŐSI KARSZTFORRÁS, Jósvafõ.
[Subsidiary Images]
2.4.6.  ŐSI KARSZTFORRÁS, Tohonya völgy, Jósvafõ  /  "Ancient" Karst Resurgence Spring, Jósvafõ :

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  [unknown]
- Elevation :  [unknown]

Hydrological Information :
- Catchment Area :  [unknown]
Located in the left limb of the head of the Tohonya völgy,  opposite the entrance of the Kossuth Barlang. This is a natural spring which has been captured or encased for use as a public water supply.

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
The hydrometric infrastructure at the site is as shown in Image 2.4.6-2. below. A 90º Triangular V-Notch Thin Plate Weir installation accompanies a fixed metal guaging staff.


Image 2.4.6-1..(above-left)...NAGY-TOHONYA.KARSZTFORRÁS and Hydrometric Infrastructure, near Jósvafõ,18 August 2002.
Image 2.4.6-2..(above-right)...NAGY-TOHONYA.KARSZTFORRÁS and Hydrometric Infrastructure, near Jósvafõ,18 August 2002.

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2.4.7. KIS-TOHONYA KARSZTFORRÁS, Jósvafõ.
[Subsidiary Images]
2.4.7.  KIS-TOHONYA KARSZTFORRÁS, Tohonya völgy, Jósvafõ  /  Small Tohonya Karst Resurgence Spring, Jósvafõ :

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  048° 29' 44'' N.  020° 32' 18'' E.
- Elevation :  258m. (846ft.) above Baltic Sea Level.

Hydrological Information :
- Catchment Area :  3.5 km².
Located in the left limb of the head of the Tohonya völgy,  below the entrance of the Vass Imre Barlang, this water mainly originates from the Milada Ponor in the Slovak Karst.

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
[Details to follow.]

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2.4.8.  VECSEM KARSZTFORRÁS, Bódvaszilas.
[Subsidiary Images]
2.4.8.  VECSEM KARSZTFORRÁS, Bódvaszilas  /  Vecsem Karst Exsurgence Spring, Bódvaszilas :

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  048° 33' 04'' N.  020° 43' 52'' E.
- Elevation :  189m. (620ft.) above Baltic Sea Level.

Hydrological Information :
- Catchment Area :  4.8 km².

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
[Details to follow.]

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2.4.9.  BARLANGKUTATÓ-FORRÁS, Bódvaszilas.
[Subsidiary Images]
2.4.9.  BARLANGKUTATÓ-KARSZTFORRÁS, Bódvaszilas  /  Cave-research Karst Exsurgence Spring, Bódvaszilas :

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  [unknown]
- Elevation :  [unknown]
This is located on the Alsó-hegy about ??km from the village of Bódvaszilas.

Hydrological Information :
[Unresolved.]

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
The location contains no Hydrometric Infrastructure but is of great interest.

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