UNESCO 
(MAB) World Heritage Site
1995
 

AGGTELEKI NEMZETI PARK

SLOVENSKÝ KRAS
CHRÁNENÁ KRAJINNÁ OBLASŤ

The Devon Karst Research Society, ACTIVITIES (Europe).

THE PROJECTS
Main Project No. 4.  Hungary & Slovakia.


The Gömör-Torna Karst Region
Slovakia - Hungary.

THE AGGTELEK KARST, Hungary  -  AZ AGGTELEKI KARSZT, Magyarország.

Section 2.0.
THE HUNGARIAN VITUKI KARST HYDROLOGICAL RESEARCH AND MONITORING PROGRAMME.
[ VITUKI = Vízgazdálkodási Tudományos Kutatóközpont. / "Research Centre for Water Resources Development" of the Institute of Hydrology.]
2.3.  COMPARISON OF PONOR HYDROMETRIC INFRASTRUCTURE, 1986 to 2005.
Updated 14 February 2006.
All Images on this page were recorded by B. Lewarne, unless otherwise stated.

Webpage Contents :
2.3.1...Bába-Lyuk Víznyelő, Aggtelek  /  Bába Hole Ponor, Aggtelek :
2.3.2...Csernai-Tói Víznyelő, Aggtelek  /  Cserna Lake Ponor, Aggtelek :
2.3.3...Kis-Baradla Víznyelő, Aggtelek  /  Small Baradla Ponor, Aggtelek :
2.3.4...Baradla-barlang Fő-bejárat, Aggtelek  /  Main Entrance to the Baradla Cave System, Aggtelek :
2.3.5...Acheron Víznyelő, Aggtelek  /  Acheron Ponor, Aggtelek :
2.3.6...Zombor-Lyuk Víznyelő, Aggtelek  /  Zombor Hole Ponor, Aggtelek :
2.3.7...Kis-Ravasz-Lyuk Víznyelő  /  Small Ravasz Hole Ponor :
2.3.8...Nagy-Ravasz-Lyuk Víznyelő  /  Large Ravasz Hole Ponor :
2.3.9...Névtelen-Nyelő  /  Un-named Swallow-hole (abandoned ponor) :
2.3.10...Baradla-barlang, Retek-ág  /  Baradla Cave, "Radish" Branch Passage :
2.3.11...Baradla-barlang, Acheron-ág  /  Baradla Cave, "Acheron" Branch Passage :

Click on the underlined Links.above to move down to the Sections quickly..

MAP OF THE 
BARADLA-DOMICA CAVE SYSTEM
RELATIVE TO THE VILLAGES 
OF AGGTELEK and JÓSVAFŐ,
(opposite »)
.

2.3.1.  BÁBA-LYUK VÍZNYELŐ, 
Aggtelek.
[Locational-context Images.
Click on image to see full size.]


A closer view of the Bába-lyuk víznyelő doline, as
seen from the west side looking eastwards.
25 April 1992.


A closer view of the Bába-lyuk víznyelő doline,
as seen from the east side looking westwards.
25 April 1992.

2.3.1.  BÁBA-LYUK VÍZNYELŐ, Aggtelek  /  Bába Hole Ponor, Aggtelek :

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  [unknown]
- Elevation :  [unknown]
This very large and enigmatic surface feature is located to the south-west of the village of Aggtelek and about 100m from the Aggtelek to Trizs Road and in the area known as Bábahatára. When we first saw this in 1984, it was used as the raw sewage discharge point into the ground for the village of Aggtelek! Infrastructure from this activity survives today in the form of a circular concrete tower located in the sinkhole. Aggtelek now has a modern sewage treatment works in the main area of the village.

Hydrological Information :
When active, it has been suggested, and indeed accepted, that the water feeds into the underground flow of the Baradla Deep Master Conduit, resurging at its Long Lower Cave Resurgence springs at Jósvafõ. As a result of detailed scientific investigations, it has also been suggested that the age of the warm-water component at the Baradla Long Lower Cave Resurgence Spring is of the order of 1 300 years old.

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
[not applicable]. In connection with hydrometric infrastructure, this hydrologically important location has never had the benefit of being included in the VITUKI Hydrological Programme. It has no permanent feeder stream and seems to be a relict sinkhole, periodically active only in periods of heavy rain.


Photo-montage Image 2.3.1-1. This rather dark image is taken from the long straight road out of Aggtelek to Trizs, looking back to Aggtelek.
The.BÁBA-LYUK VÍZNYELŐ and its doline is in the extreme right-centre of the panorama.
(Photographer :  unknown, August 1987.)

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2.3.2.  CSERNAI-TÓI VÍZNYELŐ, 
Aggtelek.
[Locational-context Images.
Click on image to see full size.]


The overgrown Csernai-tó Víznyelő doline is situated
beside the Aggtelek to Domica Road. 02 Oct 2000.


A closer view of the Csernai-tói Víznyelő doline.
02 Oct 2000.

2.3.2.  CSERNAI-TÓI VÍZNYELŐ, Aggtelek  /  Cserna Lake Ponor, Aggtelek :

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  [unknown]
- Elevation :  [unknown]
This is conveniently located beside the Aggtelek to Domica road about 130m from the Aggtelek / Domica International Border Crossing on the Hungarian side. The ponor is located at the bottom of a neo-circular doline, at the base of a barely visible cliff. It has become impassable due to the natural accumulation of a large amount of debris. The occasional water input to this ponor originates from the ephemeral Csernai-tó (Cserna Lake). We have never witnessed the presence of this Periodic Lake or any water-flow to its ponor.

Hydrological Information :
When active, the water feeds into the "Csernai-ág" ("Cserna Branch") Passage. This joins the underground flow of the River Styx in the Baradla Upper Master Conduit, resurging at its Short Lower Cave Resurgence springs at Jósvafõ.


Images 2.3.2-1. (Above-left),  2.3.2-2. (Above-centre) and  2.3.2-3. (Above-right)  CSERNAI-TÓI VÍZNYELŐ Hydrometric Infrastructure - in good operational condition as at 02 October 2000.
showing the Weir-Plate with its 90º Triangular V-Notch.


mages 2.3.2-4. (Above-left) and 2.3.2-5. (Above-right)  CSERNAI-TÓI VÍZNYELŐ Hydrometric Infrastructure - in full, active operational condition as at 02 October 2000.
showing the Metra 501 Recording Hydrograph in position, complete with chart paper.

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
- 02 October 2000 - The ponor has a 90º Triangular V-Notch Weir Plate, with accompanying Metra 501 Recording Hydrograph and float chamber / pedestal, all in full operational mode. We are not aware of who is making use of the installation, but it is a welcome revelation.

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2.3.3.  KIS-BARADLA VÍZNYELŐ, 
Aggtelek.
[Subsidiary Images. Click on image to see full size.]


This original ponor entrance was fed naturally by surface
water coursing down the Baradla völgy (Baradla Valley).
The ground-level in front of the cliff is mostly accumulated
talus and buries what is obviously a huge cave entrance.
An idea of the size of the cave-infill material and its vertical
range can be ascertained from inside the nearby
Show Cave passages underground. 17 Aug 2002.

2.3.3.  KIS-BARADLA VÍZNYELŐ, Aggtelek  /  Small Baradla Ponor, Aggtelek :
(a Rubikon-ág víznyelője  /  Ponor for the Baradla Cave's, "Rubikon" Branch passage.)

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  [unknown]
- Elevation :  [unknown]

Hydrological Information :
We have never witnessed any water-flow into this ponor. When active, its water feeds into the short "Rubikon-ág" ("Rubikon Branch") Passage which supplies water directly into the upper reaches of the master flow of the underground River Styx in "Styx-ág". This is the Upper Master Conduit of the River Styx, which connects with the Short Lower Cave Resurgence springs at Jósvafõ.


Images 2.3.3-1. (Above-left)and  2.3.3-2. (Above-right)   KIS-BARADLA VÍZNYELŐ Hydrometric Infrastructure - in very poor condition as at 17 August 2002.
showing the weir-plate approach canal, the Thin Plate Weir with its Hyperbolic Type (III) Linear Notch and stilling well or float chamber. 
In the distance beyond the weir in Image 2.3.3-2. above can be seen the ponor cave's natural entrance, now mostly walled up above ground-level.


Images 2.3.3-3. KIS-BARADLA VÍZNYELŐ Hydrometric Infrastructure 17 August 2002.
as viewed from above. The Metra 501 Recording Hydrograph is missing from on top of the float chamber pedestal.

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
- 17 August 2002 - The hydrometric infrastructure is situated about 100m upstream of the actual ponor entrance and consists of a weir-plate approach canal, a Thin Plate Weir with its Hyperbolic Type (III) Linear Notch and a stilling well or float chamber / pedestal. We have never seen a recording hydrograph in position here.

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2.3.4.  BARADLA BARLANG,
FŐ-BEJÁRAT, 
Aggtelek.
[Subsidiary Images.]

BARADLA BARLANG FŐ-BEJÁRAT (VÍZNYELŐ),
Image 2.3.4-3. (above),..29September 2000, as viewed from the ground-level at the time.
(Photo :  L. Satterley.)
2.3.4.  BARADLA BARLANG FŐ-BEJÁRAT, Aggtelek  /  Main Entrance to the Baradla Cave System, Aggtelek :

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  [unknown]
- Elevation :  [unknown]
This was most probably an active ponor many thousands of years ago. Unless the whole of the surrounding surface area floods to a great depth, this fossil ponor remains inactive. It is included here insofar as it is a ponor. The first two views of the location below are the earliest that our records contain.

..........
BARADLA BARLANG FŐ-BEJÁRAT (VÍZNYELŐ),
Image 2.3.4-1. (above-left), August 1986, as viewed from the ground-level at the time.....Image 2.3.4-2. (above-right), August 1986, as viewed from above.
(Photos :  M. Hardman.)

In recent years, much of the concrete infrastructure on the ground level in front of the entrance has been removed, lowering the ground to something resembling its original, undeveloped and natural condition. In effect, this has increased the potential for the entrance to re-activate as an overflow ponor during surface- flooding events.
The area inside this cave entrance is of great speleo-archaeological importance. The entrance slot is but the top of a gigantic entrance which has become buried beneath an enormous talus of material. This material is comprised of earth, mud, stones and natural collapse debris, containing a variety of archaeological horizons within this matrix. The show-cave's steeply sloping concrete path and steps leading down inside from the entrance, overlay this matrix. The overall steep gradient of the natural cave and the speleo-morphological evidence recorded on the cave walls indicate that this entrance formed a typical ponor.

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
[not applicable]. There is no hydrometric infrastructure at this location. The nearest active ponor is the Acheron Víznyelő, situated some 140m to the south.  (See Paragraph 2.3.5. below.)

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2.3.5.  ACHERON VÍZNYELŐ, 
Aggtelek.
[Subsidiary Images. Click on image to see full size.]


The ground-level entrance gate to the Acheron Ponor.
13 Aug 2002.


A view of the entrance gate from below.
13 Aug 2002.

2.3.5.  ACHERON VÍZNYELŐ, Aggtelek  /  Acheron Ponor, Aggtelek :
(az Acheron-ág víznyelője  /  Ponor for the Baradla Cave's, "Acheron" Branch passage.)

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  [unknown]
- Elevation :  [unknown]
The ponor mouth is now buried below made-up ground but is accessible via an access chamber. The ponor is located at the foot of a natural cliff, parts of which are discernable in the access chamber. A short length of artificial tunnel leads from the access chamber to the buried cliff and ponor mouth.Technically a high absorption-capacity swallow hole, it has become largely blocked with debris, rendering it a low capacity ponor. To improve the drainage of the surface area, a normal surface drainage system has been in operation since the 1950's after prolonged storms flooded the whole site and the Acheron Ponor was found to be incapable of clearing the deep water fast enough. 

Hydrological Information :
When active, the water feeds into the "Acheron-ág" ("Acheron Branch") Passage. This joins the underground flow of the River Styx in the Baradla Upper Master Conduit, resurging at its Short Lower Cave Resurgence springs at Jósvafõ.


Image 2.3.5-1.   ACHERON VÍZNYELŐ with a distinctive lack of  Hydrometric Infrastructure - 13 Aug 2002.
This is an important ponor which once used to drain the whole area in front of the main Aggtelek entrance to
the Baradla Show Cave. 

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
[not applicable]. The water-input to this site is measured through a Weir Plate deep beneath the surface in the "Acheron Branch" Passage of the Baradla Cave. See Paragraph 2.3.11. below.

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2.3.6.  ZOMBOR-LYUK VÍZNYELŐ,
Aggtelek.
[Locational-context Images.
Click on image to see full size]


A view of the north end of the massive
doline, looking in the direction of
Aggtelek and its Lake.
02 Oct 2000.


A view from the road above the ponor, 
looking west along the dry stream-bed 
towards the village of Aggtelek.
02 Oct 2000.


A view of the massive  alluvial doline
containing the dry stream channel, seen 
here crossing from the upstream (right) to
the ponor (left). The floor of the doline is 
used by the village for agricultural strip-farming.
16 Aug 2002.


Overgrown condition of the Zombor-Lyuk 
ponor mouth, 16 Aug 2002.

2.3.6.  ZOMBOR-LYUK VÍZNYELŐ, Aggtelek  /  Zombor Hole Ponor, Aggtelek :
(a Törökmecset-ág víznyelője  /  Ponor for the Baradla Cave's, "Turkish Mosque" Branch passage.)

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  [unknown]
- Elevation :  [unknown]
This karst sinkhole or ponor is located at the bottom of the steep slope immediately below the Aggtelek to Jósvafő Road and at the south-eastern foot of Galya-tetõ. The original karst landscape doline feature largely survives intact and is used for agricultural strip-farming by the Aggtelek village community, as seen in the site-context images in the left-hand column and the MPEG Video File below.
.

Click on the Link below to see more of the locational context for 
ZOMBOR-LYUK VÍZNYELŐ, Aggtelek.
(MPEG Video File 1.36MB, 60 secs.)

Hydrological Information :
When active, the water feeds into the "Törökmecset-ág" ("Turkish Mosque Branch") Passage. This joins the underground flow of the River Styx in the Baradla Upper Master Conduit, resurging at its Short Lower Cave Resurgence springs at Jósvafõ.


Image 2.3.6-1.   ZOMBOR-LYUK VÍZNYELŐ Hydrometric Infrastructure - in very poor condition as at 16 August 2002.
The glass window of the Metra 501 Hydrograph housing is missing, together with its revolving drum. 
The 90º Triangular V-Notch Thin Plate Weir is being encompassed in undergrowth.

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
- 16 August 2002 - The ponor has a 90º Triangular V-Notch Weir Plate, with accompanying Metra 501 Recording Hydrograph (now without its glass window, revolving drum and pen) and float chamber / pedestal. More of this can be seen in the accompanying MPEG Video File below.

Click on the Link below to see more of the Hydrometric Infrastructure at
ZOMBOR-LYUK VÍZNYELŐ, Aggtelek.
(MPEG Video File 1.36MB, 60 secs.)












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2.3.7.  KIS-RAVASZ-LYUK VÍZNYELŐ.
[Subsidiary Images]
2.3.7.  KIS-RAVASZ-LYUK VÍZNYELŐ  /  Small Ravasz Hole Ponor :
(a Retek-ág víznyelője  /  A secondary Ponor for the Baradla Cave's, "Radish" Branch passage.)
[In preparation.]

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  [unknown]
- Elevation :  [unknown]
Located about 130m east of the nearby Nagy Ravasz-Lyuk Víznyelő, in the area known as Ravasz-lyuk.

Hydrological Information :
When active, the water feeds into the "Retek-ág" ("Radish Branch") Passage. This joins the underground flow of the River Styx in the Baradla Upper Master Conduit, resurging at its Short Lower Cave Resurgence springs at Jósvafõ.

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
[not applicable]. The flow through this ponor was calculated by the difference between the total flow measured at the Baradla Barlang "Retek-ág" Thin Plate Weir and that recorded at the Weir at the nearby ponor input at Nagy Ravasz-Lyuk. See Paragraph 2.3.8. below.

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2.3.8.  NAGY-RAVASZ-LYUK VÍZNYELŐ.
[Subsidiary Images]
2.3.8.  NAGY-RAVASZ-LYUK VÍZNYELŐ  /  Large Ravasz Hole Ponor :
(a Retek-ág fő víznyelője  /  Main Ponor for the Baradla Cave's, "Radish" Branch passage.)

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  [unknown]
- Elevation :  [unknown]
Located about 130m west of the nearby Kis Ravasz-Lyuk Víznyelő, in the area known as Ravasz-lyuk.

Hydrological Information :
When active, the water feeds into the "Retek-ág" ("Radish Branch") Passage. This joins the underground flow of the River Styx in the Baradla Upper Master Conduit, resurging at its Short Lower Cave Resurgence springs at Jósvafõ.


Image 2.3.8-1. NAGY-RAVASZ-LYUK VÍZNYELŐ Hydrometric Infrastructure - 
- in very good condition as at Easter 1989.
(Photo :  R.P. Smith.)

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
- The ponor has a 90º Triangular V-Notch Weir Plate, with accompanying Metra 501 Recording Hydrograph and float chamber / pedestal.

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2.3.9.  NÉVTELEN-NYELŐ.
[Subsidiary Images]
2.3.9.  NÉVTELEN-NYELŐ  /  Un-named Swallow-hole (abandoned ponor) :
[In preparation.]

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  [unknown]
- Elevation :  [unknown]
Situated between the villages of Aggtelek and Jósvafõ and not far from the main road, it is on the east side of Hideg-völgy.

Hydrological Information :
This is a hydrologically-inactive (fossil ponor) location. It is unclear whether it is connected to the Baradla Cave System or the Béke-barlang.

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
[not applicable]. Hydrologically-inactive site.

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2.3.10.  BARADLA BARLANG, RETEK-ÁG.
[Subsidiary Images]
2.3.10.  BARADLA BARLANG, RETEK-ÁG  /  Baradla Cave, "Radish" Branch Passage :
[In preparation.]

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  [not applicable]
- Elevation :  [unknown]
The Hydrometric Infrastructure is situated near the downstream end of the Baradla Barlang "Retek-ág" ("Radish Branch") Passage, near its confluence with the Upper Master Conduit of the River Styx in the main Baradla Show Cave passage.

Hydrological Information :
The Upper Master Conduit of the River Styx connects with the Short Lower Cave Resurgence springs at Jósvafõ.

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
The cave passage has a 90º Triangular V-Notch Weir Plate, with accompanying Metra 501 Recording Hydrograph and float chamber / pedestal. This records water data originating from both the Nagy Ravasz-lyuk and Kis Ravasz-lyuk feeder ponors.

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2.3.11.  BARADLA BARLANG, ACHERON-ÁG.
[Subsidiary Images]
2.3.11. BARADLA BARLANG, ACHERON-ÁG  /  Baradla Cave, "Acheron" Branch Passage :
[In preparation.]

Location :
- GPS Co-ordinates :  [not applicable]
- Elevation :  [unknown]
The Hydrometric Infrastructure is situated in the "Acheron-ág" ("Acheron Branch") Passage of the Baradla Barlang, right beside the main Show Cave path.

Hydrological Information :
The Upper Master Conduit of the River Styx connects with the Short Lower Cave Resurgence springs at Jósvafõ.

Hydrometric Infrastructure :
The cave passage has a 90º Triangular V-Notch Weir Plate, with accompanying Metra 501 Recording Hydrograph and float chamber / pedestal.

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